IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/ipewps/1222019.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Financialization made in Germany: A review

Author

Listed:
  • Detzer, Daniel

Abstract

This article examines the spread of financialization in Germany before the financial crisis. It provides an up-to date overview on the literature on financialization and reviews which of the phenomena typically associated with financialization have emerged in Germany. In particular, the article aims to clarify how the prevailing institutional structure and its changes had contributed to or had countervailed the spread of financialization and how it had shaped the specific German variant of financialization. For this end, it combines the rich literature on Germany's institutional structure with the more macroeconomic oriented literature on financializaton. With the combination of those different perspectives the article sheds light on the reasons for the spread of financialization and the specific forms it has taken in Germany.

Suggested Citation

  • Detzer, Daniel, 2019. "Financialization made in Germany: A review," IPE Working Papers 122/2019, Berlin School of Economics and Law, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:ipewps:1222019
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/203147/1/1676017577.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Senkarcin, Matej, 2015. "German Landesbanks in the Post-guarantee Reality," Working Papers 15-14, University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, Weiss Center.
    2. Chris Hunt, 2014. "Household debt: a cross-country perspective," Reserve Bank of New Zealand Bulletin, Reserve Bank of New Zealand, vol. 77, pages 1-13, October.
    3. Beck Thorsten & Büyükkarabacak Berrak & Rioja Felix K. & Valev Neven T., 2012. "Who Gets the Credit? And Does It Matter? Household vs. Firm Lending Across Countries," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 12(1), pages 1-46, March.
    4. Nicolas Veron & Stephane Rottier, 2010. "Not All Financial Regulation Is Global," Policy Briefs PB10-22, Peterson Institute for International Economics.
    5. Peter L. Rousseau & Paul Wachtel, 2011. "What Is Happening To The Impact Of Financial Deepening On Economic Growth?," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 49(1), pages 276-288, January.
    6. Ronald Dore, 2008. "Financialization of the global economy," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(6), pages 1097-1112, December.
    7. Engelbert Stockhammer & Stefan Ederer, 2008. "Demand effects of the falling wage share in Austria," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 35(5), pages 481-502, December.
    8. Iancu, Aurel, 2013. "Financialisation: Structure, Extent, Consequences," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(2), pages 172-192, June.
    9. Demir, FIrat, 2009. "Financial liberalization, private investment and portfolio choice: Financialization of real sectors in emerging markets," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(2), pages 314-324, March.
    10. Daniel Detzer, 2018. "Inequality, emulation and debt: The occurrence of different growth regimes in the age of financialization in a stock-flow consistent model," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(2), pages 284-315, April.
    11. Michel Aglietta & Régis Breton, 2001. "Financial systems, corporate control, and capital accumulation," Post-Print halshs-00256788, HAL.
    12. Eckhard Hein & Till Van Treeck, 2010. "Financialisation and Rising Shareholder Power in Kaleckian/Post-Kaleckian Models of Distribution and Growth," Review of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(2), pages 205-233.
    13. Viral V. Acharya & Philipp Schnabl, 2010. "Do Global Banks Spread Global Imbalances? The Case of Asset-Backed Commercial Paper During the Financial Crisis of 2007-09," NBER Working Papers 16079, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Marc Lavoie, 2014. "Post-Keynesian Economics: New Foundations," Post-Print hal-01343652, HAL.
    15. Marc Lavoie, 2012. "Financialization, neo-liberalism, and securitization," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(2), pages 215-233.
    16. Seikel, Daniel, 2013. "Der Kampf um öffentlich-rechtliche Banken: Wie die Europäische Kommission Liberalisierung durchsetzt," Schriften aus dem Max-Planck-Institut für Gesellschaftsforschung Köln, Max Planck Institute for the Study of Societies, volume 77, number 77.
    17. Hilgers, Sven, 2014. "Manager of financial globalization? The European Union in global anti-money laundering and international accounting standard setting," PIPE - Papers on International Political Economy 22/2014, Free University Berlin, Center for International Political Economy.
    18. Egert Juuse & Rainer Kattel, 2014. "Financial Regulation in Estonia," Working papers wpaper57, Financialisation, Economy, Society & Sustainable Development (FESSUD) Project.
    19. Özlem Onaran & Giorgos Galanis, 2014. "Income Distribution and Growth: A Global Model," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 46(10), pages 2489-2513, October.
    20. Eckhard Hein, 2012. "The Macroeconomics of Finance-Dominated Capitalism – and its Crisis," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14931.
    21. Cynamon Barry Z. & Fazzari Steven M., 2008. "Household Debt in the Consumer Age: Source of Growth--Risk of Collapse," Capitalism and Society, De Gruyter, vol. 3(2), pages 1-32, October.
    22. Daniel Detzer, 2015. "Inequality and the Financial System— The Case of Germany," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 54(4), pages 585-608.
    23. Daniel Detzer & Nina Dodig & Trevor Evans & Eckhard Hein & Hansjörg Herr & Franz Josef Prante, 2017. "The German Financial System and the Financial and Economic Crisis," Financial and Monetary Policy Studies, Springer, number 978-3-319-56799-0, December.
    24. Daniele Tori & Özlem Onaran, 2017. "The effects of financialisation and financial development on investment: evidence from firm-level data in Europe," Working Papers PKWP1705, Post Keynesian Economics Society (PKES).
    25. Cioffi, John W., 2002. "Restructuring “Germany Inc.”: The Politics of Company and Takeover Law Reform in Germany and the European Union," Institute of European Studies, Working Paper Series qt4p15c19g, Institute of European Studies, UC Berkeley.
    26. Christian Dustmann & Bernd Fitzenberger & Uta Sch?nberg & Alexandra Spitz-Oener, 2014. "From Sick Man of Europe to Economic Superstar: Germany's Resurgent Economy," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 28(1), pages 167-188, Winter.
    27. Eckhard Hein & Daniel Detzer, 2015. "Finance-Dominated Capitalism and Income Distribution: A Kaleckian Perspective on the Case of Germany," Italian Economic Journal: A Continuation of Rivista Italiana degli Economisti and Giornale degli Economisti, Springer;Società Italiana degli Economisti (Italian Economic Association), vol. 1(2), pages 171-191, July.
    28. Chizema, Amon, 2010. "Early and late adoption of American-style executive pay in Germany: Governance and institutions," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 9-18, January.
    29. Christian Dreger & Jiri Slacalek, 2007. "Finanzmarktentwicklung, Immobilienpreise und Konsum," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 74(35), pages 533-536.
    30. Hacker, Jacob S., 2008. "The Great Risk Shift: The New Economic Insecurity and the Decline of the American Dream," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195335347.
    31. Engelbert Stockhammer, 2004. "Financialisation and the slowdown of accumulation," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 28(5), pages 719-741, September.
    32. Eckhard Hein, 2015. "Finance-dominated capitalism and re-distribution of income: a Kaleckian perspective," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 39(3), pages 907-934.
    33. Karl Brenke, 2011. "Einkommensumverteilung schwächt privaten Verbrauch," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 78(8), pages 2-12.
    34. Engelbert Stockhammer & Eckhard Hein & Lucas Grafl, 2011. "Globalization and the effects of changes in functional income distribution on aggregate demand in Germany," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(1), pages 1-23.
    35. Thomas Dallery, 2009. "Post-Keynesian Theories of the Firm under Financialization," Review of Radical Political Economics, Union for Radical Political Economics, vol. 41(4), pages 492-515, December.
    36. Erik Klär & Jiri Slacalek, 2006. "Entwicklung der Sparquote in Deutschland: Hindernis für die Erholung der Konsumnachfrage," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 73(40), pages 537-543.
    37. Beck, Thorsten & Degryse, Hans & Kneer, Christiane, 2014. "Is more finance better? Disentangling intermediation and size effects of financial systems," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 10(C), pages 50-64.
    38. James Crotty, 2009. "Structural causes of the global financial crisis: a critical assessment of the 'new financial architecture'," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 33(4), pages 563-580, July.
    39. Cable, John R, 1985. "Capital Market Information and Industrial Performance: The Role of West German Banks," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 95(377), pages 118-132, March.
    40. Law, Siong Hook & Singh, Nirvikar, 2014. "Does too much finance harm economic growth?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 36-44.
    41. Merton H. Miller, 2012. "Financial Markets and Economic Growth," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 24(1), pages 8-13, March.
    42. Özlem Onaran & Engelbert Stockhammer & Lucas Grafl, 2011. "Financialisation, income distribution and aggregate demand in the USA," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 35(4), pages 637-661.
    43. Eichacker, Nina, 2015. "Financial liberalization and the onset of financial crisis in Western European states between 1983 and 2011: An econometric investigation," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 323-343.
    44. David Zalewski & Charles Whalen, 2010. "Financialization and Income Inequality: A Post Keynesian Institutionalist Analysis," Journal of Economic Issues, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(3), pages 757-777.
    45. Demetriades, Panicos O. & Rousseau, Peter L., 2016. "The changing face of financial development," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 141(C), pages 87-90.
    46. Christopher Brown, 2004. "Does income distribution matter for effective demand? Evidence from the United States," Review of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(3), pages 291-307.
    47. Engelbert Stockhammer & Özlem Onaran & Stefan Ederer, 2009. "Functional income distribution and aggregate demand in the Euro area," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 33(1), pages 139-159, January.
    48. Henk De Jong, 1997. "The Governance Structure and Performance of Large European Corporations," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 1(1), pages 5-27, March.
    49. James B. Ang, 2008. "A Survey Of Recent Developments In The Literature Of Finance And Growth," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(3), pages 536-576, July.
    50. Stolbov, Mikhail, 2013. "The finance-growth nexus revisited: From origins to a modern theoretical landscape," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal (2007-2020), Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 7, pages 1-22.
    51. King, Robert G. & Levine, Ross, 1993. "Finance, entrepreneurship and growth: Theory and evidence," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 513-542, December.
    52. Nina Dodig & Eckhard Hein & Daniel Detzer, 2016. "Financialisation and the financial and economic crises: theoretical framework and empirical analysis for 15 countries," Chapters, in: Eckhard Hein & Daniel Detzer & Nina Dodig (ed.), Financialisation and the Financial and Economic Crises, chapter 1, pages 1-41, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    53. Shen, Chung-Hua & Lee, Chien-Chiang, 2006. "Same Financial Development Yet Different Economic Growth: Why?," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(7), pages 1907-1944, October.
    54. Christoph Memmel & Andrea Schertler, 2012. "The Dependency of the Banks' Assets and Liabilities: Evidence from Germany," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 18(4), pages 602-619, September.
    55. Engelbert Stockhammer & Robert Stehrer, 2011. "Goodwin or Kalecki in Demand? Functional Income Distribution and Aggregate Demand in the Short Run," Review of Radical Political Economics, Union for Radical Political Economics, vol. 43(4), pages 506-522, December.
    56. Jan A. Kregel & Mario Tonveronachi, 2014. "Presentation of seven country studies on the impact of implementation of EU Directives on Banking and Finance on national regulatory systems," Working papers wpaper68, Financialisation, Economy, Society & Sustainable Development (FESSUD) Project.
    57. Till Van Treeck, 2008. "Reconsidering The Investment–Profit Nexus In Finance‐Led Economies: An Ardl‐Based Approach," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 59(3), pages 371-404, July.
    58. Daniele Tori & Özlem Onaran, 2018. "The effects of financialization on investment: evidence from firm-level data for the UK," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(5), pages 1393-1416.
    59. Leila E. Davis, 2018. "Financialization and the non†financial corporation: An investigation of firm†level investment behavior in the United States," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 69(1), pages 270-307, February.
    60. Weber, Anke, 2009. "An empirical analysis of the 2000 corporate tax reform in Germany: Effects on ownership and control in listed companies," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 57-66, March.
    61. Costas Lapavitsas & Jeff Powell, 2013. "Financialisation varied: a comparative analysis of advanced economies," Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, Cambridge Political Economy Society, vol. 6(3), pages 359-379.
    62. Karen E. Dynan & Jonathan Skinner & Stephen P. Zeldes, 2004. "Do the Rich Save More?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 112(2), pages 397-444, April.
    63. C. Naastepad & Servaas Storm, 2006. "OECD demand regimes (1960-2000)," Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 29(2), pages 211-246.
    64. Bezemer, Dirk & Grydaki, Maria & Zhang, Lu, 2014. "Is financial development bad for growth?," Research Report 14016-GEM, University of Groningen, Research Institute SOM (Systems, Organisations and Management).
    65. Jürgens, Ulrich & Rupp, Joachim & Vitols, Katrin & Jäschke-Werthmann, Bärbel, 2000. "Corporate Governance and Shareholder Value in Deutschland," Discussion Papers, Research Unit: Regulation of Work FS II 00-202, WZB Berlin Social Science Center.
    66. Eckhard Hein, 2014. "Distribution and Growth after Keynes," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 15903.
    67. Daniel Detzer & Eckhard Hein, 2016. "Financialisation and the crises in the export-led mercantilist German economy," Chapters, in: Eckhard Hein & Daniel Detzer & Nina Dodig (ed.), Financialisation and the Financial and Economic Crises, chapter 7, pages 163-191, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    68. Thibault Darcillon, 2015. "How does Finance Affect Labor Market Institutions? An Empirical Analysis in 16 OECD Countries," PSE-Ecole d'économie de Paris (Postprint) hal-01248941, HAL.
    69. Özgür Orhangazi, 2008. "Financialization and the US Economy," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 12927.
    70. Viral V Acharya & Philipp Schnabl, 2010. "Do Global Banks Spread Global Imbalances? Asset-Backed Commercial Paper during the Financial Crisis of 2007–09," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 58(1), pages 37-73, August.
    71. Thomas Dallery & Till van Treeck, 2011. "Conflicting Claims and Equilibrium Adjustment Processes in a Stock-flow Consistent Macroeconomic Model," Review of Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(2), pages 189-211, April.
    72. Corbett, Jenny & Jenkinson, Tim, 1997. "How Is Investment Financed? A Study of Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States," The Manchester School of Economic & Social Studies, University of Manchester, vol. 65(0), pages 69-93, Supplemen.
    73. Yash P. Mehra, 2001. "The wealth effect in empirical life-cycle aggregate consumption equations," Economic Quarterly, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond, issue Spr, pages 45-67.
    74. Hyun Song Shin, 2012. "Global Banking Glut and Loan Risk Premium," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 60(2), pages 155-192, July.
    75. Berghoff, Hartmut, 2016. "Varieties of Financialization? Evidence from German Industry in the 1990s," Business History Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 90(1), pages 81-108, April.
    76. Hein, Eckhard & Dodig, Nina, 2014. "Financialisation, distribution, growth and crises: Long-run tendencies," IPE Working Papers 35/2014, Berlin School of Economics and Law, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE).
    77. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Eckhard Hein, 2017. "Post-Keynesian macroeconomics since the mid 1990s: main developments," European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies: Intervention, Edward Elgar Publishing, vol. 14(2), pages 131-172, September.
    2. Hein, Eckhard, 2018. "Inequality and growth: Marxian and post-Keynesian/Kaleckian perspectives on distribution and growth regimes before and after the Great Recession," IPE Working Papers 96/2018, Berlin School of Economics and Law, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE).
    3. Eckhard Hein & Walter Paternesi Meloni & Pasquale Tridico, 2021. "Welfare models and demand-led growth regimes before and after the financial and economic crisis," Review of International Political Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(5), pages 1196-1223, October.
    4. Hein, Eckhard, 2017. "Financialisation and tendencies towards stagnation: The role of macroeconomic regime changes in the course of and after the financial and economic crisis 2007-9," IPE Working Papers 90/2017, Berlin School of Economics and Law, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE).
    5. Eckhard Hein, 2012. "The Macroeconomics of Finance-Dominated Capitalism – and its Crisis," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14931.
    6. Dünhaupt, Petra & Hein, Eckhard, 2018. "Financialisation, distribution & the macroeconomic regimes before & after the crisis: A post-Keynesian view on Denmark, Estonia & Latvia," IPE Working Papers 104/2018, Berlin School of Economics and Law, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE).
    7. Leila E. Davis, 2017. "Financialization And Investment: A Survey Of The Empirical Literature," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(5), pages 1332-1358, December.
    8. Hein, Eckhard, 2011. "Distribution, ‘Financialisation’ and the Financial and Economic Crisis – Implications for Post-crisis Economic Policies," MPRA Paper 31180, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Hein, Eckhard & Dodig, Nina, 2014. "Financialisation, distribution, growth and crises: Long-run tendencies," IPE Working Papers 35/2014, Berlin School of Economics and Law, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE).
    10. Nina Dodig & Eckhard Hein & Daniel Detzer, 2016. "Financialisation and the financial and economic crises: theoretical framework and empirical analysis for 15 countries," Chapters, in: Eckhard Hein & Daniel Detzer & Nina Dodig (ed.), Financialisation and the Financial and Economic Crises, chapter 1, pages 1-41, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    11. Parui, Pintu, 2021. "Financialization and endogenous technological change: A post-Kaleckian perspective," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 221-244.
    12. Detzer, Daniel & Hein, Eckhard, 2014. "Financialisation and the financial and economic crises: The case of Germany," IPE Working Papers 44/2014, Berlin School of Economics and Law, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE).
    13. Daniel Detzer, 2017. "Financialisation, Debt and Inequality: Export-led Mercantilist and Debt-led Private Demand Boom Economies in a Stock-flow consistent Model," Working Papers 2016-03, Universita' di Cassino, Dipartimento di Economia e Giurisprudenza.
    14. Tori, Daniele & Onaran, Özlem, 2017. "The effects of financialisation and financial development on investment: evidence from firm-level data in Europe," Greenwich Papers in Political Economy 16089, University of Greenwich, Greenwich Political Economy Research Centre.
    15. Daniele Tori & Özlem Onaran, 2017. "Financialisation and physical investment: a global race to the bottom in accumulation?," Working Papers PKWP1707, Post Keynesian Economics Society (PKES).
    16. Tristan Auvray & Cédric Durand & Joel Rabinovich & Cecilia Rikap, 2021. "Corporate financialization’s conservation and transformation: from Mark I to Mark II," Review of Evolutionary Political Economy, Springer, vol. 2(3), pages 431-457, December.
    17. Hein, Eckhard. & Mundt, Matthias., 2012. "Financialisation and the requirements and potentials for wage-led recovery : a review focussing on the G20," ILO Working Papers 994709323402676, International Labour Organization.
    18. Hein, Eckhard, 2020. "Financialisation and stagnation: A macroeconomic regime perspective," IPE Working Papers 149/2020, Berlin School of Economics and Law, Institute for International Political Economy (IPE).
    19. Stockhammer, Engelbert & Rabinovich, Joel & Reddy, Niall, 2017. "Distribution, wealth and demand regimes in historical perspective. USA, UK, France and Germany, 1855-2010," Economics Discussion Papers 2017-5, School of Economics, Kingston University London.
    20. Daniele Tori & Özlem Onaran, 2018. "The effects of financialization on investment: evidence from firm-level data for the UK," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(5), pages 1393-1416.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Banking; Corporate Governance; Financialization; Financial Sector; Financial Regulation; Varieties of Capitalism;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • F40 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - General
    • G20 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - General
    • G30 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - General
    • K22 - Law and Economics - - Regulation and Business Law - - - Business and Securities Law

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:ipewps:1222019. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iphwrde.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/iphwrde.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.