IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Central & Eastern Europe: Gliding on a Wind of Change

Listed author(s):
  • Fabrizio Coricelli

    ()

  • Bal??zs ??gert

    ()

  • Ronald MacDonald

    ()

This paper surveys recent advances in empirical studies of the monetary transmission mechanism (MTM), with special attention to Central and Eastern Europe. In particular, while laying out the functioning of the separate channels in the MTM, it explores possible interrelations between different channels and their impact on prices and the real economy. The empirical ndings for Central and Eastern Europe are then briey compared with results for industrialized countries, especially for the euro area. We highlight potential pitfalls in the literature and assess the relative importance, and potential development, of the different channels, emphasizing the relevant asymmetries between Central and Eastern European countries and the euro area.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/57230/1/wp850.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan in its series William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series with number wp850.

as
in new window

Length: pages
Date of creation: 01 Nov 2006
Handle: RePEc:wdi:papers:2006-850
Contact details of provider: Postal:
724 E. University Ave, Wyly Hall 1st Flr, Ann Arbor MI 48109

Phone: 734 763-5020
Fax: 734 763-5850
Web page: http://www.wdi.umich.edu
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as
in new window

  1. Weth, Mark A., 2002. "The pass-through from market interest rates to bank lending rates in Germany," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2002,11, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  2. Burstein, Ariel Tomas & Neves, Joao C & Rebelo, Sérgio, 2004. "Investment Prices and Exchange Rates: Some Basic Facts," CEPR Discussion Papers 4290, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  3. Bal??zs ??gert, & L??szl?? Halpern & Ronald MacDonald, 2005. "Equilibrium Exchange Rates in Transition Economies: Taking Stock of the Issues," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp793, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  4. Luca Dedola & Francesco Lippi, 2000. "The monetary transmission mechanism; evidence from the industries of five OECD countries," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 389, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  5. Anil K. Kashyap & Jeremy C. Stein & David W. Wilcox, 1991. "Monetary policy and credit conditions: evidence from the composition of external finance," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 154, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  6. Barth, Marvin J III & Ramey, Valerie A, 2000. "The Cost Channel of Monetary Transmissions," University of California at San Diego, Economics Working Paper Series qt7rm5q9sk, Department of Economics, UC San Diego.
  7. Franziska L Ohnsorge & Nienke Oomes, 2005. "Money Demand and Inflation in Dollarized Economies; The Case of Russia," IMF Working Papers 05/144, .
  8. Gabriele Galati & Piti Disyatat, 2005. "The effectiveness of foreign exchange intervention in emerging market countries: evidence from the Czech koruna," BIS Working Papers 172, Bank for International Settlements.
  9. Burstein, Ariel Tomas & Eichenbaum, Martin & Rebelo, Sérgio, 2002. "Why Are Rates of Inflation So Low After large Devaluations," CEPR Discussion Papers 3178, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. Jerome Creel & Sandrine Levasseur, 2005. "Monetary policy transmission mechanisms in the CEECs: How important are the differences with the euro area?," Documents de Travail de l'OFCE 2005-02, Observatoire Francais des Conjonctures Economiques (OFCE).
  11. Jes??s Crespo-Cuaresma & Bal??zs ??gert & Thomas Reininger, 2004. "Interest Rate Pass-Through in New EU Member States: The Case of the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2004-671, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  12. Egert, Balazs & Komarek, Lubos, 2006. "Foreign exchange interventions and interest rate policy in the Czech Republic: Hand in glove?," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 121-140, June.
  13. Matousek, Roman & Sarantis, Nicholas, 2009. "The bank lending channel and monetary transmission in Central and Eastern European countries," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 321-334, June.
  14. Chatelain, Jean-Bernard & Generale, Andrea & Hernando, Ignacio & Von Kalckreuth, Ulf & Vermeulen, Philip, 2001. "Firm investment and monetary transmission in the euro area," Working Paper Series 0112, European Central Bank.
  15. Hannan, Timothy H & Berger, Allen N, 1991. "The Rigidity of Prices: Evidence from the Banking Industry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(4), pages 938-945, September.
  16. Anca Maria Pruteanu-Podpiera, 2007. "The role of banks in the Czech monetary policy transmission mechanism," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 15(2), pages 393-428, 04.
  17. Ariel Burstein & Martin Eichenbaum & Sergio Rebelo, 2004. "Large Devaluations and the Real Exchange Rate," NBER Working Papers 10986, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Menzie D. Chinn & Guy Meredith, 2005. "Testing Uncovered Interest Parity at Short and Long Horizons during the Post-Bretton Woods Era," NBER Working Papers 11077, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Michael Ehrmann & Leonardo Gambacorta & Jorge Mart�nez-Pag�s & Patrick Sevestre & Andreas Worms, 2001. "Fynancial Systems and the Role of Banks in Monetary Policy Transmission in the Euro area," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 432, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  20. Michael Ehrmann & Andreas Worms, 2004. "Bank Networks and Monetary Policy Transmission," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 2(6), pages 1148-1171, December.
  21. Ben S. Bernanke & Mark Gertler, 1999. "Monetary policy and asset price volatility," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, issue Q IV, pages 17-51.
  22. Campa, Jose Manuel & Goldberg, Linda S, 1999. "Investment, Pass-Through, and Exchange Rates: A Cross-Country Comparison," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 40(2), pages 287-314, May.
  23. Georgy Ganev & Krisztina Molnar & Krzysztof Rybinski & Przemyslaw Wozniak, 2002. "Transmission Mechanism of Monetary Policy in Centraland Eastern Europe," CASE Network Reports 0052, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
  24. Adam B. Ashcraft, 2001. "New evidence on the lending channel," Staff Reports 136, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  25. Wojciech Maliszewski, 2002. "Monetary Policy in Transition: Structural Econometric Modelling and Policy Simulations," CASE Network Studies and Analyses 0246, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
  26. Holub, Tomáš, 2004. "Foreign exchange interventions under inflation targeting: the Czech Experience," Research Notes 17, Deutsche Bank Research.
  27. Simona MATEUT & Spiros BOUGHEAS & Paul MIZEN, 2003. "Trade Credit, Bank Lending and Monetary Policy Transmission," Economics Working Papers ECO2003/02, European University Institute.
  28. Egert, Balazs & Crespo-Cuaresma, Jesus & Reininger, Thomas, 2007. "Interest rate pass-through in central and Eastern Europe: Reborn from ashes merely to pass away?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 209-225.
  29. de Bondt, Gabe, 2002. "Retail bank interest rate pass-through: new evidence at the euro area level," Working Paper Series 0136, European Central Bank.
  30. Eiji Fuji & Jeannine Bailliu, 2004. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through and the Inflation Environment in Industrialized Countries: An Empirical Investigation," Computing in Economics and Finance 2004 135, Society for Computational Economics.
  31. Christopher A. Sims, 1992. "Interpreting the Macroeconomic Time Series Facts: The Effects of Monetary Policy," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1011, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  32. Jorge I Canales Kriljenko, 2003. "Foreign Exchange Intervention in Developing and Transition Economies; Results of a Survey," IMF Working Papers 03/95, .
  33. Campa, Jose M. & Goldberg, Linda S., 2002. "Exchange rate pass-through into import prices: A macro or micro phenomenon?," IESE Research Papers D/475, IESE Business School.
  34. Jarociński, Marek, 2008. "Responses to monetary policy shocks in the east and the west of Europe: a comparison," Working Paper Series 0970, European Central Bank.
  35. Peersman, Gert & Smets, Frank, 2002. "The industry effects of monetary policy in the euro area," Working Paper Series 0165, European Central Bank.
  36. Hakan Kara & Hande Kucuk Tuger & Umit Ozlale & Burc Tuger & Devrim Yavuz & Eray M. Yucel, 2005. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Turkey : Has it Changed and to What Extent?," Working Papers 0504, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
  37. Marion Kohler & Erik Britton & Tony Yates, 2000. "Trade credit and the monetary transmission mechanism," Bank of England working papers 115, Bank of England.
  38. Jonathan McCarthy, 2007. "Pass-Through of Exchange Rates and Import Prices to Domestic Inflation in Some Industrialized Economies," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 33(4), pages 511-537, Fall.
  39. Bennett T. McCallum, 1999. "Analysis of the Monetary Transmission Mechanism: Methodological Issues," NBER Working Papers 7395, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  40. Kleimeier,Stefanie & Sander,Harald, 2004. "Interest Rate Pass-through in an Enlarged Europe: The Role of Banking Market Structure for Monetary Policy Transmission in Transition Countries," Research Memorandum 045, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR).
  41. Zsolt Darvas, 2006. "Monetary Transmission in the New EU Member States: Evidence from Time-Varying Coefficient Vector Autoregression," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 1, pages 140-155.
  42. Aaron Tornell & Frank Westermann, 2003. "The Credit Channel in Middle Income Countries," CESifo Working Paper Series 832, CESifo Group Munich.
  43. J. Kornai & E. Maskin & G. Roland., 2004. "Understanding the Soft Budget Constraint," VOPROSY ECONOMIKI, N.P. Redaktsiya zhurnala "Voprosy Economiki", vol. 12.
  44. Christina D. Romer and David H. Romer., 1989. "Does Monetary Policy Matter? A New Test in the Spirit of Friedman and Schwartz," Economics Working Papers 89-107, University of California at Berkeley.
  45. Jun Nagayasu & Ronald MacDonald, 1999. "The Long-Run Relationship Between Real Exchange Rates and Real Interest Rate Differentials; A Panel Study," IMF Working Papers 99/37, .
  46. Kashyap, Anil K & Stein, Jeremy C & Wilcox, David W, 1996. "Monetary Policy and Credit Conditions: Evidence from the Composition of External Finance: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 310-314, March.
  47. Michael B. Devereux & James Yetman, 2002. "Price Setting and Exhange Rate Pass-Through," Working Papers 222002, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
  48. Choudhri, Ehsan U. & Hakura, Dalia S., 2006. "Exchange rate pass-through to domestic prices: Does the inflationary environment matter?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 614-639, June.
  49. Gambacorta, Leonardo, 2005. "Inside the bank lending channel," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(7), pages 1737-1759, October.
  50. Ben S. Bernanke & Jean Boivin & Piotr Eliasz, 2004. "Measuring the effects of monetary policy: a factor-augmented vector autoregressive (FAVAR) approach," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2004-03, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  51. Giordani, Paolo, 2004. "An alternative explanation of the price puzzle," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(6), pages 1271-1296, September.
  52. Martins Bitans & Dainis Stikuts & Ivars Tillers, 2003. "Transmission of Monetary Shocks in Latvia," Working Papers 2003/01, Latvijas Banka.
  53. Frankel, Jeffrey & Parsley, David & Wei, Shang-Jin, 2005. "Slow Passthrough Around the World: A New Import for Developing Countries?," Working Paper Series rwp05-016, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
  54. Gábor Kátay & Zoltán Wolf, 2004. "Investment Behavior, User Cost and Monetary Policy Transmission - the Case of Hungary," MNB Working Papers 2004/12, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Central Bank of Hungary).
  55. Mojon, Benoît & Peersman, Gert, 2001. "A VAR description of the effects of monetary policy in the individual countries of the euro area," Working Paper Series 0092, European Central Bank.
  56. Wang, Hung-Jen, 2001. "Production Smoothing When Bank Loan Supply Shifts: The Role of Variable Capacity Utilization," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(3), pages 749-766, August.
  57. Gabor Vadas & Gergely Kiss, 2005. "The Role of the Housing Market in Monetary Transmission," Macroeconomics 0512010, EconWPA.
  58. Darvas, Zsolt, 2001. "Exchange rate pass-through and real exchange rate in EU candidate countries," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2001,10, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  59. Alexander F. Tieman, 2004. "Interest Rate Pass-Through in Romania and Other Central European Economies," IMF Working Papers 04/211, .
  60. McKenzie, Michael D, 1999. " The Impact of Exchange Rate Volatility on International Trade Flows," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(1), pages 71-106, February.
  61. Ramon P. DeGennaro, 2005. "Market imperfections," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2005-12, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
  62. Nilsen, Jeffrey H, 2002. "Trade Credit and the Bank Lending Channel," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(1), pages 226-253, February.
  63. Gambacorta, Leonardo, 2008. "How do banks set interest rates?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 52(5), pages 792-819, July.
  64. Ewa Wrobel & Malgorzata Pawlowska, 2002. "Monetary transmission in Poland: some evidence on interest rate and credit channels," National Bank of Poland Working Papers 24, National Bank of Poland, Economic Institute.
  65. Mojon, Benoît & Angeloni, Ignazio & Terlizzese, Daniele & Kashyap, Anil K., 2003. "The output composition puzzle: a difference in the monetary transmission mechanism in the euro area and U.S," Working Paper Series 0268, European Central Bank.
  66. Solange Berstein & Rodrigo Fuentes, 2003. "Is There Lending Rate Stickiness in the Chilean Banking Industry?," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 218, Central Bank of Chile.
  67. Claudio Soto & Jorge Selaive, 2003. "Openness and Imperfect Pass-Through: Implications for the Monetary Policy," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 216, Central Bank of Chile.
  68. Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 1996. "Foundations of International Macroeconomics," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262150476, December.
  69. Frederic S. Mishkin, 2001. "The Transmission Mechanism and the Role of Asset Prices in Monetary Policy," NBER Working Papers 8617, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  70. Carranza, Luis & Galdon-Sanchez, Jose E. & Gomez-Biscarri, Javier, 2009. "Exchange rate and inflation dynamics in dollarized economies," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(1), pages 98-108, May.
  71. Christophe Hurlin & Rafal Kierzenkowski, 2003. "Credit Market Disequilibrium in Poland: Can We Find What We Expect? Non-Stationarity and the ???Min???Condition," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2003-581, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  72. Choudhri, Ehsan U. & Faruqee, Hamid & Hakura, Dalia S., 2005. "Explaining the exchange rate pass-through in different prices," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 349-374, March.
  73. Ben S. Bernanke & Mark Gertler, 1995. "Inside the Black Box: The Credit Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 27-48, Fall.
  74. Charles Engel, 2002. "The Responsiveness of Consumer Prices to Exchange Rates And the Implications for Exchange-Rate Policy: A Survey Of a Few Recent New Open-Economy..," NBER Working Papers 8725, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  75. Simona Mateut, 2005. "Trade Credit and Monetary Policy Transmission," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(4), pages 655-670, 09.
  76. Adam Elbourne & Jakob de Haan, 2004. "Asymmetric Monetary Transmission in EMU: The Robustness of VAR Conclusions and Cecchetti’s Legal Family Theory," CESifo Working Paper Series 1327, CESifo Group Munich.
  77. Elbourne, Adam & de Haan, Jakob, 2006. "Financial structure and monetary policy transmission in transition countries," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 1-23, March.
  78. Korhonen, Iikka & Wachtel, Paul, 2006. "A note on exchange rate pass-through in CIS countries," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 215-226, June.
  79. Favero, Carlo A. & Giavazzi, Francesco, 2004. "Inflation Targeting and Debt: Lessons from Brazil," CEPR Discussion Papers 4376, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  80. Fabrizio CORICELLI & Bostjan JAZBEC & Igor MASTEN, 2004. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Acceding Countries: The Role of Exchange Rate Regimes," Economics Working Papers ECO2004/16, European University Institute.
  81. Kim, Soyoung & Roubini, Nouriel, 2000. "Exchange rate anomalies in the industrial countries: A solution with a structural VAR approach," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 561-586, June.
  82. Hanson, Michael S., 2004. "The "price puzzle" reconsidered," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(7), pages 1385-1413, October.
  83. Oliner, Stephen D & Rudebusch, Glenn D, 1996. "Monetary Policy and Credit Conditions: Evidence from the Composition of External Finance: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 300-309, March.
  84. Fernando Alexandre, 2002. "Monetary Policy, Investment and Non-Fundamental Shocks," NIPE Working Papers 6/2002, NIPE - Universidade do Minho.
  85. Pau Rabanal, 2003. "The Cost Channel of Monetary Policy; Further Evidence for the United States and the Euro Area," IMF Working Papers 03/149, .
  86. Joseph E. Gagnon & Jane E. Ihrig, 2001. "Monetary policy and exchange rate pass-through," International Finance Discussion Papers 704, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  87. Ehrmann, Michael & Fratzscher, Marcel, 2004. "Taking stock: monetary policy transmission to equity markets," Working Paper Series 0354, European Central Bank.
  88. Sander, Harald & Kleimeier, Stefanie, 2004. "Convergence in euro-zone retail banking? What interest rate pass-through tells us about monetary policy transmission, competition and integration," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 461-492, April.
  89. FFF1Jitka NNN1Rychtarikova, 2004. "The case of the Czech Republic," Demographic Research Special Collections, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 2(5), pages 105-138, April.
  90. Kierzenkowski, Rafal, 2005. "The multi-regime bank lending channel and the effectiveness of the Polish monetary policy transmission during transition," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 1-24, March.
  91. Christophe Hurlin & Rafal Kierzenkowski, 2002. "A Theoretical and Empirical Assessment of the Bank Lending Channel and Loan Market Disequilibrium in Poland," National Bank of Poland Working Papers 22, National Bank of Poland, Economic Institute.
  92. Eichenbaum, Martin, 1992. "'Interpreting the macroeconomic time series facts: The effects of monetary policy' : by Christopher Sims," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 1001-1011, June.
  93. Jeannine Bailliu & Hafedh Bouakez, 2004. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Industrialized Countries," Bank of Canada Review, Bank of Canada, vol. 2004(Spring), pages 19-28.
  94. Peersman, Gert & Smets, Frank, 2001. "Are the effects of monetary policy in the euro area greater in recessions than in booms?," Working Paper Series 0052, European Central Bank.
  95. Chmielewski, Tomasz, 2003. "Interest rate pass-through in the Polish banking sector and bank-specific financial disturbances," MPRA Paper 5133, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 31 Jan 2004.
  96. Jérôme Héricourt, 2005. "Monetary policy transmission in the CEECs : revisited results using alternative econometrics," Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques bla05020, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  97. Chmielewski, Tomasz, 2005. "Bank risks, risk preferences and lending," MPRA Paper 5131, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 15 Jan 2006.
  98. András Rezessy, 2005. "Estimating the immediate impact of monetary policy shocks on the exchange rate and other asset prices in Hungary," MNB Occasional Papers 2005/38, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Central Bank of Hungary).
  99. Nikolay Gueorguiev, 2003. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Romania," IMF Working Papers 03/130, .
  100. Wojciech Maliszewski, 1999. "VAR-ing Monetary Policy in Poland," CASE Network Studies and Analyses 0188, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
  101. Ca' Zorzi, Michele & Hahn, Elke & Sánchez, Marcelo, 2007. "Exchange rate pass-through in emerging markets," Working Paper Series 0739, European Central Bank.
  102. Zelal Aktas & Neslihan Kaya & Umit Ozlale, 2005. "The Price Puzzle in Emerging Markets : Evidence from the Turkish Economy Using Model Based Risk Premium Derived from Domestic Fundamentals," Working Papers 0502, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
  103. Aaron Tornell, 2002. "The Credit Channel in Middle Income Countries (October 2002), with Frank Westermann," UCLA Economics Online Papers 216, UCLA Department of Economics.
  104. Olivier Blanchard, 2004. "Fiscal Dominance and Inflation Targeting: Lessons from Brazil," NBER Working Papers 10389, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wdi:papers:2006-850. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (WDI)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.