IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper

Monetary Transmission Mechanism in Central & Eastern Europe: Gliding on a Wind of Change

  • Fabrizio Coricelli

    ()

  • Balázs Égert

    ()

  • Ronald MacDonald

    ()

This paper surveys recent advances in empirical studies of the monetary transmission mechanism (MTM), with special attention to Central and Eastern Europe. In particular, while laying out the functioning of the separate channels in the MTM, it explores possible interrelations between different channels and their impact on prices and the real economy. The empirical ndings for Central and Eastern Europe are then briey compared with results for industrialized countries, especially for the euro area. We highlight potential pitfalls in the literature and assess the relative importance, and potential development, of the different channels, emphasizing the relevant asymmetries between Central and Eastern European countries and the euro area.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.wdi.umich.edu/files/Publications/WorkingPapers/wp850.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan in its series William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series with number wp850.

as
in new window

Length: pages
Date of creation: 01 Nov 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wdi:papers:2006-850
Contact details of provider: Postal:
724 E. University Ave, Wyly Hall 1st Flr, Ann Arbor MI 48109

Phone: 734 763-5020
Fax: 734 763-5850
Web page: http://www.wdi.umich.edu
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Simona Mateut & Spiros Bougheas & Paul Mizen, . "Trade Credit, Bank Lending and Monetary Policy Transmission," Discussion Papers 05/01, University of Nottingham, Centre for Finance, Credit and Macroeconomics (CFCM).
  2. Ariel Burstein & Martin Eichenbaum & Sergio T. Rebelo, 2002. "Why Are Rates of Inflation So Low After Large Devaluations?," RCER Working Papers 486, University of Rochester - Center for Economic Research (RCER).
  3. Simona Mateut, 2005. "Trade Credit and Monetary Policy Transmission," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(4), pages 655-670, 09.
  4. Choudhri, Ehsan U. & Faruqee, Hamid & Hakura, Dalia S., 2005. "Explaining the exchange rate pass-through in different prices," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 349-374, March.
  5. Mojon, Benoît & Peersman, Gert, 2001. "A VAR description of the effects of monetary policy in the individual countries of the euro area," Working Paper Series 0092, European Central Bank.
  6. Ben S. Bernanke & Mark Gertler, 1999. "Monetary policy and asset price volatility," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 77-128.
  7. Ariel Burstein & Joao C. Neves & Sergio Rebelo, 2004. "Investment Prices and Exchange Rates: Some Basic Facts," NBER Working Papers 10238, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Gabor Vadas & Gergely Kiss, 2005. "The Role of the Housing Market in Monetary Transmission," Macroeconomics 0512010, EconWPA.
  9. Fabrizio CORICELLI & Bostjan JAZBEC & Igor MASTEN, 2004. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Acceding Countries: The Role of Exchange Rate Regimes," Economics Working Papers ECO2004/16, European University Institute.
  10. de Bondt, Gabe, 2002. "Retail bank interest rate pass-through: new evidence at the euro area level," Working Paper Series 0136, European Central Bank.
  11. Aaron Tornell, 2002. "The Credit Channel in Middle Income Countries (October 2002), with Frank Westermann," UCLA Economics Online Papers 216, UCLA Department of Economics.
  12. Korhonen, Iikka & Wachtel, Paul, 2005. "A note on exchange rate pass-through in CIS countries," BOFIT Discussion Papers 2/2005, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
  13. Michael B. Devereux & James Yetman, 2002. "Price Setting and Exhange Rate Pass-Through," Working Papers 222002, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
  14. Nilsen, Jeffrey H, 2002. "Trade Credit and the Bank Lending Channel," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(1), pages 226-53, February.
  15. Marek Jarocinski, 2006. "Responses to Monetary Policy Shocks in the East and the West of Europe: A Comparison," Working Papers 124, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank).
  16. Jorge Iván Canales Kriljenko, 2003. "Foreign Exchange Intervention in Developing and Transition Economies; Results of a Survey," IMF Working Papers 03/95, International Monetary Fund.
  17. Christophe Hurlin & Rafal Kierzenkowski, 2003. "Credit Market Disequilibrium in Poland: Can We Find What We Expect? Non-Stationarity and the “Min”Condition," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2003-581, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  18. Marvin J. Barth III & Valerie A. Ramey, 2000. "The Cost Channel of Monetary Transmission," NBER Working Papers 7675, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Choudhri, Ehsan U. & Hakura, Dalia S., 2006. "Exchange rate pass-through to domestic prices: Does the inflationary environment matter?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 614-639, June.
  20. Jérôme Creel & Sandrine Levasseur, 2005. "Monetary policy transmission mechanisms in the CEECs: How important are the differences with the euro area?," Working Papers hal-00972777, HAL.
  21. Peersman, Gert & Smets, Frank, 2002. "The industry effects of monetary policy in the euro area," Working Paper Series 0165, European Central Bank.
  22. Nikolay Gueorguiev, 2003. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Romania," IMF Working Papers 03/130, International Monetary Fund.
  23. Ariel Burstein & Martin Eichenbaum & Sergio Rebelo, 2005. "Large Devaluations and the Real Exchange Rate," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 113(4), pages 742-784, August.
  24. Martins Bitans & Dainis Stikuts & Ivars Tillers, 2003. "Transmission of Monetary Shocks in Latvia," Working Papers 2003/01, Latvijas Banka.
  25. Ben S. Bernanke & Mark Gertler, 1995. "Inside the Black Box: The Credit Channel of Monetary Policy Transmission," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 27-48, Fall.
  26. Favero, Carlo A. & Giavazzi, Francesco, 2004. "Inflation Targeting and Debt: Lessons from Brazil," CEPR Discussion Papers 4376, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  27. Pau Rabanal, 2003. "The Cost Channel of Monetary Policy; Further Evidence for the United States and the Euro Area," IMF Working Papers 03/149, International Monetary Fund.
  28. Christina D. Romer & David H. Romer, 1989. "Does Monetary Policy Matter? A New Test in the Spirit of Friedman and Schwartz," NBER Working Papers 2966, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  29. Holub, Tomáš, 2004. "Foreign exchange interventions under inflation targeting: the Czech Experience," Research Notes 17, Deutsche Bank Research.
  30. Anil K. Kashyap & Jeremy C. Stein & David W. Wilcox, 1991. "Monetary policy and credit conditions: evidence from the composition of external finance," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 154, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  31. Solange Berstein & Rodrigo Fuentes, 2003. "Is There Lending Rate Stickiness in the Chilean Banking Industry?," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 218, Central Bank of Chile.
  32. Jesus Crespo Cuaresma & Balázs Égert & Thomas Reininger, 2006. "Interest Rate Pass-Through in Central and Eastern Europe: Reborn from Ashes Merely to Pass Away?," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 1, pages 88-111.
  33. Joseph E. Gagnon & Jane E. Ihrig, 2001. "Monetary policy and exchange rate pass-through," International Finance Discussion Papers 704, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  34. Fernando Alexandre, 2003. "Monetary policy, investment and non-fundamental shocks," Computing in Economics and Finance 2003 296, Society for Computational Economics.
  35. DeGennaro, Ramon P., 2005. "Market imperfections," Journal of Financial Transformation, Capco Institute, vol. 14, pages 107-117.
  36. Matousek, Roman & Sarantis, Nicholas, 2009. "The bank lending channel and monetary transmission in Central and Eastern European countries," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 321-334, June.
  37. Zsolt Darvas, 2006. "Monetary Transmission in the New EU Member States: Evidence from Time-Varying Coefficient Vector Autoregression," Focus on European Economic Integration, Oesterreichische Nationalbank (Austrian Central Bank), issue 1, pages 140-155.
  38. Korhonen, Iikka & Wechtel, Paul, 2005. "A Note on exchange rate pass-through in CIS countries," BOFIT Discussion Papers 2/2005, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
  39. Janos Kornai & Eric Maskin & Gerard Roland, 2002. "Understanding the Soft Budget Constraint," Economics Working Papers 0019, Institute for Advanced Study, School of Social Science.
  40. Ashcraft, Adam B., 2006. "New Evidence on the Lending Channel," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(3), pages 751-775, April.
  41. Ben S. Bernanke & Jean Boivin & Piotr Eliasz, 2004. "Measuring the Effects of Monetary Policy: A Factor-Augmented Vector Autoregressive (FAVAR) Approach," NBER Working Papers 10220, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  42. Alexander F. Tieman, 2004. "Interest Rate Pass-Through in Romania and Other Central European Economies," IMF Working Papers 04/211, International Monetary Fund.
  43. Eichenbaum, Martin, 1992. "'Interpreting the macroeconomic time series facts: The effects of monetary policy' : by Christopher Sims," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 1001-1011, June.
  44. Balazs Egert & Lubos Komarek, 2005. "Foreign Exchange Interventions and Interest Rate Policy in the Czech Republic: Hand in Glove?," Working Papers 2005/07, Czech National Bank, Research Department.
  45. Oliner, Stephen D & Rudebusch, Glenn D, 1996. "Monetary Policy and Credit Conditions: Evidence from the Composition of External Finance: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 300-309, March.
  46. Charles Engel, 2002. "The Responsiveness of Consumer Prices to Exchange Rates And the Implications for Exchange-Rate Policy: A Survey Of a Few Recent New Open-Economy..," NBER Working Papers 8725, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  47. Luca Dedola & Francesco Lippi, 2000. "The Monetary Transmission Mechanism: Evidence from the Industry Data of Five OECD Countries," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1833, Econometric Society.
  48. Sevestre, Patrick & Martinez-Pages, Jorge & Gambacorta, Leonardo & Ehrmann, Michael & Worms, Andreas, 2001. "Financial systems and the role of banks in monetary policy transmission in the euro area," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2001,18, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  49. Frankel, Jeffrey & Parsley, David & Wei, Shang-Jin, 2005. "Slow Passthrough Around the World: A New Import for Developing Countries?," Working Paper Series rwp05-016, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
  50. Ehrmann, Michael & Fratzscher, Marcel, 2004. "Taking stock: monetary policy transmission to equity markets," Working Paper Series 0354, European Central Bank.
  51. Jérôme Héricourt, 2005. "Monetary policy transmission in the CEECs : revisited results using alternative econometrics," Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques bla05020, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
  52. Ca' Zorzi, Michele & Hahn, Elke & Sánchez, Marcelo, 2007. "Exchange rate pass-through in emerging markets," Working Paper Series 0739, European Central Bank.
  53. Eiji Fuji & Jeannine Bailliu, 2004. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through and the Inflation Environment in Industrialized Countries: An Empirical Investigation," Computing in Economics and Finance 2004 135, Society for Computational Economics.
  54. Mojon, Benoît & Angeloni, Ignazio & Terlizzese, Daniele & Kashyap, Anil K., 2003. "The output composition puzzle: a difference in the monetary transmission mechanism in the euro area and U.S," Working Paper Series 0268, European Central Bank.
  55. András Rezessy, 2005. "Estimating the immediate impact of monetary policy shocks on the exchange rate and other asset prices in Hungary," MNB Occasional Papers 2005/38, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Central Bank of Hungary).
  56. Chmielewski, Tomasz, 2005. "Bank risks, risk preferences and lending," MPRA Paper 5131, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 15 Jan 2006.
  57. Luca Dedola & Francesco Lippi, 2000. "The monetary transmission mechanism; evidence from the industries of five OECD countries," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 389, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  58. Christophe Hurlin & Rafal Kierzenkowski, 2002. "A Theoretical and Empirical Assessment of the Bank Lending Channel and Loan Market Disequilibrium in Poland," National Bank of Poland Working Papers 22, National Bank of Poland, Economic Institute.
  59. Ronald MacDonald & Jun Nagayasu, 2000. "The Long-Run Relationship Between Real Exchange Rates and Real Interest Rate Differentials: A Panel Study," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 47(1), pages 5.
  60. Bennett T. McCallum, 1999. "Analysis of the Monetary Transmission Mechanism: Methodological Issues," NBER Working Papers 7395, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  61. Jonathan McCarthy, 2007. "Pass-Through of Exchange Rates and Import Prices to Domestic Inflation in Some Industrialized Economies," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 33(4), pages 511-537, Fall.
  62. Adam Elbourne & Jakob de Haan, 2004. "Asymmetric Monetary Transmission in EMU: The Robustness of VAR Conclusions and Cecchetti’s Legal Family Theory," CESifo Working Paper Series 1327, CESifo Group Munich.
  63. Campa, Jose M. & Goldberg, Linda S., 2002. "Exchange rate pass-through into import prices: A macro or micro phenomenon?," IESE Research Papers D/475, IESE Business School.
  64. Kleimeier,Stefanie & Sander,Harald, 2004. "Interest Rate Pass-through in an Enlarged Europe: The Role of Banking Market Structure for Monetary Policy Transmission in Transition Countries," Research Memorandum 045, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR).
  65. Luis Carranza & José E. Galdón-Sánchez & Javier Gómez Biscarri, 2004. "Exchange Rate and Inflation Dynamics in Dollarized Economies," Faculty Working Papers 10/04, School of Economics and Business Administration, University of Navarra.
  66. Wang, Hung-Jen, 2001. "Production Smoothing When Bank Loan Supply Shifts: The Role of Variable Capacity Utilization," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(3), pages 749-66, August.
  67. Chmielewski, Tomasz, 2003. "Interest rate pass-through in the Polish banking sector and bank-specific financial disturbances," MPRA Paper 5133, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 31 Jan 2004.
  68. Darvas, Zsolt, 2001. "Exchange rate pass-through and real exchange rate in EU candidate countries," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2001,10, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  69. Campa, Jose & Goldberg, Linda, 1995. "Investment, Pass-Through and Exchange-Rates: A Cross-Country Comparison," Working Papers 95-14, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
  70. Christopher A. Sims, 1992. "Interpreting the Macroeconomic Time Series Facts: The Effects of Monetary Policy," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1011, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  71. Ewa Wrobel & Malgorzata Pawlowska, 2002. "Monetary transmission in Poland: some evidence on interest rate and credit channels," National Bank of Poland Working Papers 24, National Bank of Poland, Economic Institute.
  72. Jeannine Bailliu & Hafedh Bouakez, 2004. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Industrialized Countries," Bank of Canada Review, Bank of Canada, vol. 2004(Spring), pages 19-28.
  73. Kim, Soyoung & Roubini, Nouriel, 2000. "Exchange rate anomalies in the industrial countries: A solution with a structural VAR approach," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 561-586, June.
  74. Franziska Ohnsorge & Nienke Oomes, 2005. "Money Demand and Inflation in Dollarized Economies; The Case of Russia," IMF Working Papers 05/144, International Monetary Fund.
  75. Sander Harald & Kleimeier Stefanie, 2003. "Convergence in Eurozone retail banking? What interest rate pass-through tells us about monetary policy transmission, competition and integration," Research Memorandum 051, Maastricht University, Maastricht Research School of Economics of Technology and Organization (METEOR).
  76. Menzie D. Chinn & Guy Meredith, 2005. "Testing Uncovered Interest Parity at Short and Long Horizons during the Post-Bretton Woods Era," NBER Working Papers 11077, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  77. Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 1996. "Foundations of International Macroeconomics," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262150476.
  78. Chatelain, Jean-Bernard & Generale, Andrea & Hernando, Ignacio & Von Kalckreuth, Ulf & Vermeulen, Philip, 2001. "Firm investment and monetary transmission in the euro area," Working Paper Series 0112, European Central Bank.
  79. Hakan Kara & Hande Kucuk Tuger & Umit Ozlale & Burc Tuger & Devrim Yavuz & Eray M. Yucel, 2005. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through in Turkey : Has it Changed and to What Extent?," Working Papers 0504, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
  80. Frederic S. Mishkin, 2001. "The Transmission Mechanism and the Role of Asset Prices in Monetary Policy," NBER Working Papers 8617, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  81. Georgy Ganev & Krisztina Molnar & Krzysztof Rybinski & Przemyslaw Wozniak, 2002. "Transmission Mechanism of Monetary Policy in Centraland Eastern Europe," CASE Network Reports 0052, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
  82. Gabriele Galati & Piti Disyatat, 2005. "The effectiveness of foreign exchange intervention in emerging market countries: evidence from the Czech koruna," BIS Working Papers 172, Bank for International Settlements.
  83. Claudio Soto & Jorge Selaive, 2003. "Openness and Imperfect Pass-Through: Implications for the Monetary Policy," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 216, Central Bank of Chile.
  84. Hannan, Timothy H & Berger, Allen N, 1991. "The Rigidity of Prices: Evidence from the Banking Industry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(4), pages 938-45, September.
  85. Elbourne, Adam & de Haan, Jakob, 2006. "Financial structure and monetary policy transmission in transition countries," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 1-23, March.
  86. Gambacorta, Leonardo, 2005. "Inside the bank lending channel," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(7), pages 1737-1759, October.
  87. Giordani, Paolo, 2001. "An Alternative Explanation of the Price Puzzle," Working Paper Series 125, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  88. Aaron Tornell & Frank Westermann, 2002. "The Credit Channel in Middle Income Countries," NBER Working Papers 9355, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  89. Olivier Blanchard, 2004. "Fiscal Dominance and Inflation Targeting: Lessons from Brazil," NBER Working Papers 10389, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  90. Michael Ehrmann & Andreas Worms, 2004. "Bank Networks and Monetary Policy Transmission," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 2(6), pages 1148-1171, December.
  91. Balázs Égert & László Halpern & Ronald MacDonald, 2006. "Equilibrium Exchange Rates in Transition Economies: Taking Stock of the Issues ," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(2), pages 257-324, 04.
  92. Wojciech Maliszewski, 2002. "Monetary Policy in Transition: Structural Econometric Modelling and Policy Simulations," CASE Network Studies and Analyses 0246, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
  93. Weth, Mark A., 2002. "The pass-through from market interest rates to bank lending rates in Germany," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2002,11, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  94. Wojciech Maliszewski, 1999. "VAR-ing Monetary Policy in Poland," CASE Network Studies and Analyses 0188, CASE-Center for Social and Economic Research.
  95. Gábor Kátay & Zoltán Wolf, 2004. "Investment Behavior, User Cost and Monetary Policy Transmission - the Case of Hungary," MNB Working Papers 2004/12, Magyar Nemzeti Bank (Central Bank of Hungary).
  96. Peersman, Gert & Smets, Frank, 2001. "Are the effects of monetary policy in the euro area greater in recessions than in booms?," Working Paper Series 0052, European Central Bank.
  97. Anca Pruteanu, 2004. "The Role of Banks in the Czech Monetary Policy Transmission Mechanism," Working Papers 2004/03, Czech National Bank, Research Department.
  98. Gambacorta, Leonardo, 2008. "How do banks set interest rates?," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 52(5), pages 792-819, July.
  99. FFF1Jitka NNN1Rychtarikova, 2004. "The case of the Czech Republic," Demographic Research Special Collections, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Rostock, Germany, vol. 2(5), pages 105-138, April.
  100. McKenzie, Michael D, 1999. " The Impact of Exchange Rate Volatility on International Trade Flows," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 13(1), pages 71-106, February.
  101. Zelal Aktas & Neslihan Kaya & Umit Ozlale, 2005. "The Price Puzzle in Emerging Markets : Evidence from the Turkish Economy Using Model Based Risk Premium Derived from Domestic Fundamentals," Working Papers 0502, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
  102. Kierzenkowski, Rafal, 2005. "The multi-regime bank lending channel and the effectiveness of the Polish monetary policy transmission during transition," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(1), pages 1-24, March.
  103. Kashyap, Anil K & Stein, Jeremy C & Wilcox, David W, 1996. "Monetary Policy and Credit Conditions: Evidence from the Composition of External Finance: Reply," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 310-14, March.
  104. Jesús Crespo-Cuaresma & Balázs Égert & Thomas Reininger, 2004. "Interest Rate Pass-Through in New EU Member States: The Case of the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2004-671, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  105. Marion Kohler & Erik Britton & Tony Yates, 2000. "Trade credit and the monetary transmission mechanism," Bank of England working papers 115, Bank of England.
  106. Hanson, Michael S., 2004. "The "price puzzle" reconsidered," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(7), pages 1385-1413, October.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wdi:papers:2006-850. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Laurie Gendron)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.