IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Where is the cheese ? synthesizing a giant literature on causes and consequences of financial sector development

Listed author(s):
  • Pasali, Selahattin Selsah
Registered author(s):

    A likely image of the current state of the literature on financial sector development is that of a Swiss cheese with many holes inside important areas of knowledge. The aim of this synthesis paper is to map the current knowledge and ignorance (i.e., holes) in the literature by providing a narrative for the empirical findings of a comprehensive literature review concerning the quantitative effects of financial development on economic growth and employment, and various determinants of financial sector development. The literature was restricted mostly to high-quality academic research that focuses on developing countries over the period 1960-2012. Because of data constraints, this review also includes cross-country analyses, in which developed and developing countries are considered together. The main findings include (i) a positive relationship between financial development and economic growth and employment, subject to a number of qualifications; (ii) a complicated relationship of regulations and supervision to financial sector development; and (iii) a positive relationship between an enabling institutional environment and financial sector development. This review also identifies some missing avenues in the literature and provides a number of suggestions for future work.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2013/10/16/000158349_20131016083448/Rendered/PDF/WPS6655.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 6655.

    as
    in new window

    Length:
    Date of creation: 01 Oct 2013
    Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6655
    Contact details of provider: Postal:
    1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433

    Phone: (202) 477-1234
    Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
    Email:


    More information through EDIRC

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as
    in new window

    1. Micco, Alejandro & Panizza, Ugo, 2006. "Bank Ownership and Lending Behavior," POLIS Working Papers 61, Institute of Public Policy and Public Choice - POLIS.
    2. Beck, Thorsten & Lundberg, Mattias & Majnoni, Giovanni, 2006. "Financial intermediary development and growth volatility: Do intermediaries dampen or magnify shocks?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(7), pages 1146-1167, November.
    3. Claessens, Stijn & Demirguc-Kunt, Asl[iota] & Huizinga, Harry, 2001. "How does foreign entry affect domestic banking markets?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 891-911, May.
    4. Reinhart, Carmen M. & Rogoff, Kenneth S., 2009. "The Aftermath of Financial Crises," Scholarly Articles 11129155, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    5. Enrico G Berkes & Ugo Panizza & Jean-Louis Arcand, 2012. "Too Much Finance?," IMF Working Papers 12/161, .
    6. Ranciere, Romain & Tornell, Aaron & Westermann, Frank, 2006. "Decomposing the effects of financial liberalization: Crises vs. growth," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(12), pages 3331-3348, December.
    7. Valerie Cerra & Sweta C. Saxena, 2005. "Growth Dynamics: The Myth of Economic Recovery," Macroeconomics 0508008, EconWPA.
    8. Reyes Aterido & Mary Hallward-Driemeier & Carmen Pagés, 2007. "Investment Climate and Employment Growth: The Impact of Access to Finance, Corruption and Regulations across Firms," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 43618, Inter-American Development Bank.
    9. Richard Podpiera, 2006. "Does Compliance with Basel Core Principles Bring Any Measurable Benefits?," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 53(2), pages 1-5.
    10. Walker, Eduardo & Lefort, Fernando, 2002. "Pension reform and capital markets : are there any (hard) links?," Social Protection and Labor Policy and Technical Notes 24082, The World Bank.
    11. Barth, James R. & Lin, Chen & Lin, Ping & Song, Frank M., 2009. "Corruption in bank lending to firms: Cross-country micro evidence on the beneficial role of competition and information sharing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(3), pages 361-388, March.
    12. Cihak, Martin & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Peria, Maria Soledad Martinez & Mohseni-Cheraghlou, Amin, 2012. "Bank regulation and supervision around the world : a crisis update," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6286, The World Bank.
    13. Robin Burgess & Rohini Pande, 2003. "Do Rural Banks Matter? Evidence from the Indian Social Banking Experiment," STICERD - Development Economics Papers - From 2008 this series has been superseded by Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers 40, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
    14. Arturo Galindo & Alejandro Micco, 2005. "Bank Credit to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises: The Role of Creditor Protection," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 347, Central Bank of Chile.
    15. Cull , Robert & Demirguc-Kunt , Asli & Morduch, Jonathan, 2009. "Does regulatory supervision curtail microfinance profitability and outreach ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4948, The World Bank.
    16. Fung, Michael K., 2009. "Financial development and economic growth: Convergence or divergence?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 56-67, February.
    17. Gonzalez, Francisco, 2005. "Bank regulation and risk-taking incentives: An international comparison of bank risk," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1153-1184, May.
    18. Hadhek Zouhaier & Mohamed Karim KEFI, 2012. "Institutions and Economic Growth," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 2(7), pages 795-812, November.
    19. Howitt, Peter & Mayer-Foulkes, David & Aghion, Philippe, 2005. "The Effect of Financial Development on Convergence: Theory and Evidence," Scholarly Articles 4481509, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    20. Pasiouras, Fotios & Tanna, Sailesh & Zopounidis, Constantin, 2009. "The impact of banking regulations on banks' cost and profit efficiency: Cross-country evidence," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 294-302, December.
    21. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad, 2005. "Reaching out : access to and use of banking services across countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3754, The World Bank.
    22. Martin Brown & Tullio Jappelli & Marco Pagano, 2007. "Information Sharing and Credit: Firm-Level Evidence from Transition Countries," CSEF Working Papers 178, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
    23. Cevdet Denizer & Murat F. Lyigun & Ann L. Owen, 2000. "Finance and macroeconomic volatility," International Finance Discussion Papers 670, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    24. Eduardo Levy Yeyati & Alejandro Micco, 2003. "Concentration and Foreign Penetration in Latin American Banking Sectors: Impact on Competition and Risk," Research Department Publications 4353, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    25. Raddatz, Claudio, 2003. "Liquidity needs and vulnerability to financial udnerdevelopment," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3161, The World Bank.
    26. Ricardo Hausmann & Michael Gavin, 1996. "Securing Stability and Growth in a Shock Prone Region: The Policy Challenge for Latin America," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 5919, Inter-American Development Bank.
    27. Jeremy Greenwood & Juan M. Sánchez & Cheng Wang, 2010. "Quantifying the impact of financial development on economic development," Working Papers 2010-023, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    28. La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei, 2001. "Government Ownership of Banks," Working Paper Series rwp01-016, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government.
    29. Huang, Ho-Chuan & Lin, Shu-Chin & Kim, Dong-Hyeon & Yeh, Chih-Chuan, 2010. "Inflation and the finance-growth nexus," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 229-236, January.
    30. Enrica Detragiache & Thierry Tressel & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt, 2006. "Banking on the Principles; Compliance with Basel Core Principles and Bank Soundness," IMF Working Papers 06/242, .
    31. Fernández, Ana I. & González, Francisco & Suárez, Nuria, 2010. "How institutions and regulation shape the influence of bank concentration on economic growth: International evidence," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 28-36, March.
    32. Allen N. Berger & Iftekhar Hasan & Leora F. Klapper, 2004. "Further evidence on the link between finance and growth: An international analysis of community banking and economic performance," Finance 0404016, EconWPA.
    33. Roubini, Nouriel & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1992. "Financial repression and economic growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 5-30, July.
    34. Paolo Angelini & Laurent Clerc & Vasco Cúrdia & Leonardo Gambacorta & Andrea Gerali & Alberto Locarno & Roberto Motto & Werner Roeger & Skander Van den Heuvel & Jan Vlcek, 2011. "BASEL III: Long-term impact on economic performance and fluctuations," BIS Working Papers 338, Bank for International Settlements.
    35. Barth, James R. & Caprio, Gerard & Levine, Ross, 2000. "Banking systems around the globe : do regulation and ownership affect the performance and stability?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2325, The World Bank.
    36. Feyen, Erik & Lester, Rodney & Rocha, Roberto, 2011. "What drives the development of the insurance sector ? an empirical analysis based on a panel of developed and developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5572, The World Bank.
    37. Clarke, George R.G. & Cull, Robert & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad, 2006. "Foreign bank participation and access to credit across firms in developing countries," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 774-795, December.
    38. Barajas, Adolfo & Steiner, Roberto & Salazar, Natalia, 2000. "The impact of liberalization and foreign investment in Colombia's financial sector," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 157-196, October.
    39. Marco Pagano & Giovanni Pica, 2012. "Finance and employment," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 27(69), pages 5-55, 01.
    40. Geert Bekaert & Campbell R. Harvey & Christian Lundblad, 2000. "Emerging Equity Markets and Economic Development," NBER Working Papers 7763, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    41. Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad & Mody, Ashoka, 2004. "How Foreign Participation and Market Concentration Impact Bank Spreads: Evidence from Latin America," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(3), pages 511-537, June.
    42. Aterido, Reyes & Hallward-Driemeier, Mary, 2010. "The impact of the investment climate on employment growth : does Sub-Saharan Africa mirror other low-income regions ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5218, The World Bank.
    43. King, Robert G.*Levine, Ross, 1993. "Finance and growth : Schumpeter might be right," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1083, The World Bank.
    44. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Ross Levine, 2001. "Legal Theories of Financial Development," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(4), pages 483-501.
    45. Levchenko, Andrei A. & Rancière, Romain & Thoenig, Mathias, 2008. "Growth and Risk at the Industry Level: the Real Effects of Financial Liberalization," CEPR Discussion Papers 6715, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    46. Becchetti, Leonardo & Ciampoli, Nicola, 2012. "What is new in the finance-growth nexus: OTC derivatives, bank assets and growth," AICCON Working Papers 110-2012, Associazione Italiana per la Cultura della Cooperazione e del Non Profit.
    47. Marcelo P. Dabós & Ernesto Gantman, 2010. "The Fading Link? A New Empirical Analysis of the Relationship Between Financial Development and Economic Growth," Working Papers 2010-013, Becker Friedman Institute for Research In Economics.
    48. Angkinand, Apanard P., 2009. "Banking regulation and the output cost of banking crises," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 240-257, April.
    49. Gianni De Nicolo & Abu M. Jalal & John H. Boyd, 2006. "Bank Risk-Taking and Competition Revisited; New Theory and New Evidence," IMF Working Papers 06/297, .
    50. M. Kabir Hassan & Jung Suk-Yu, 2007. "Financial Development and Economic Growth: New Evidence from Panel Data," NFI Working Papers 2007-WP-10, Indiana State University, Scott College of Business, Networks Financial Institute.
    51. Asli Demirguc-Kunt & Erik Feyen & Ross Levine, 2012. "The Evolving Importance of Banks and Securities Markets," NBER Working Papers 18004, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    52. Laura Cojocaru & Saul Hoffman & Jeffrey Miller, 2011. "Financial Development and Economic Growth in Transition Economies: Empirical Evidence from the CEE and CIS Countries," Working Papers 11-22, University of Delaware, Department of Economics.
    53. Marco Arena, 2008. "Does Insurance Market Activity Promote Economic Growth? A Cross-Country Study for Industrialized and Developing Countries," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 75(4), pages 921-946.
    54. John Hawkins & Dubravko Mihaljek, 2001. "The banking industry in the emerging market economies: competition, consolidation and systemic stability: an overview," BIS Papers chapters, in: Bank for International Settlements (ed.), The banking industry in the emerging market economies: competition, consolidation and systemic stability, volume 4, pages 1-44 Bank for International Settlements.
    55. Harris, Richard D. F., 1997. "Stock markets and development: A re-assessment," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 139-146, January.
    56. Bayraktar, Nihal & Yan Wang, 2004. "Foreign bank entry, performance of domestic banks, and sequence of financial liberalization," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3416, The World Bank.
    57. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav, 2004. "Bank Competition and Access to Finance: International Evidence," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 36(3), pages 627-648, June.
    58. Alessandra Bonfiglioli & Caterina Mendicino, 2005. "Financial Liberalization, Bank Crises and Growth: Assessing the links," Departmental Working Papers of Economics - University 'Roma Tre' 0044, Department of Economics - University Roma Tre.
    59. Alexandre Rands Barros, 2009. "Finance and Growth in Brazil," Working Papers 47, Datamétrica Consultoria Econômica, revised 2009.
    60. De Gregorio, Jose & Guidotti, Pablo E., 1995. "Financial development and economic growth," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 433-448, March.
    61. Martin Cihak & Richard Podpiera, 2006. "Is One Watchdog Better Than Three? International Experience with Integrated Financial Sector Supervision," IMF Working Papers 06/57, .
    62. Aaron Tornell & Frank Westermann & Lorenza Martinez, 2004. "The Positive Link Between Financial Liberalization Growth and Crises," UCLA Economics Working Papers 834, UCLA Department of Economics.
    63. Love, Inessa & Peria, Maria Soledad Martinez, 2012. "How bank competition affects firms'access to finance," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6163, The World Bank.
    64. J. François Outreville, 2011. "The relationship between insurance growth and economic development - 80 empirical papers for a review of the literature," ICER Working Papers 12-2011, ICER - International Centre for Economic Research.
    65. Beck, Thorsten, 2008. "Bank competition and financial stability : friends or foes ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4656, The World Bank.
    66. R. B. Johnston & Ceyla Pazarbasioglu, 1995. "Linkages Between Financial Variables, Financial Sector Reform and Economic Growth and Efficiency," IMF Working Papers 95/103, .
    67. Robert Cull & Laurie Effron, 2008. "World Bank Lending and Financial Sector Development," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 22(2), pages 315-343, May.
    68. Philip Chimobi Omoke, 2011. "Insurance Market Activity and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 1(4), pages 245-253, December.
    69. Djankov, Simeon & McLiesh, Caralee & Shleifer, Andrei, 2007. "Private credit in 129 countries," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(2), pages 299-329, May.
    70. Allen, Franklin & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Klapper, Leora & Peria, Maria Soledad Martinez, 2012. "The foundations of financial inclusion : understanding ownership and use of formal accounts," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6290, The World Bank.
    71. Hakan Yilmazkuday, 2011. "Thresholds in the Finance-Growth Nexus: A Cross-Country Analysis," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 25(2), pages 278-295, May.
    72. Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Detragiache, Enrica, 1997. "The determinants of banking crises : evidence from industrial and developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1828, The World Bank.
    73. Stephen Cecchetti & Enisse Kharroubi, 2012. "Reassessing the impact of finance on growth," BIS Working Papers 381, Bank for International Settlements.
    74. Bonfiglioli, Alessandra, 2005. "How Does Financial Liberalization affect Economic Growth?," Seminar Papers 736, Stockholm University, Institute for International Economic Studies.
    75. Kendall, Jake, 2009. "Local financial development and growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4838, The World Bank.
    76. Poonam Gupta & Thierry Tressel & Enrica Detragiache, 2005. "Finance in Lower Income Countries; An Empirical Exploration," IMF Working Papers 05/167, .
    77. Benhabib, Jess & Spiegel, Mark M, 2000. "The Role of Financial Development in Growth and Investment," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 5(4), pages 341-360, December.
    78. Zandberg, Eelco & Spierdijk, Laura, 2013. "Funding of pensions and economic growth: are they really related?," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 12(02), pages 151-167, April.
    79. Rina Bhattacharya & Hirut Wolde, 2010. "Constraintson Growth in the MENA Region," IMF Working Papers 10/30, .
    80. Gine, Xavier & Townsend, Robert M., 2004. "Evaluation of financial liberalization: a general equilibrium model with constrained occupation choice," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(2), pages 269-307, August.
    81. Tuuli Koivu, 2002. "Do efficient banking sectors accelerate economic growth in transition countries?," Macroeconomics 0212013, EconWPA.
    82. Channarith Meng & Wade Donald Pfau, 2010. "The Role of Pension Funds in Capital Market Development," GRIPS Discussion Papers 10-17, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
    83. Hans Byström, 2003. "The Market's View on the Probability of Banking Sector Failure: Cross-Country Comparisons," Research Paper Series 93, Quantitative Finance Research Centre, University of Technology, Sydney.
    84. Charles Amo Yartey, 2008. "The Determinants of Stock Market Development in Emerging Economies; Is South Africa Different?," IMF Working Papers 08/32, .
    85. Davis, E. Philip & Hu, Yu-Wei, 2008. "Does funding of pensions stimulate economic growth?," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(02), pages 221-249, July.
    86. Davide Furceri & Annabelle Mourougane, 2009. "The Effect of Financial Crises on Potential Output: New Empirical Evidence from OECD Countries," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 699, OECD Publishing.
    87. Roger P. Kronenberg & Alessandro Giustiniani, 2005. "Financial Sector Conditionality; Is Tougher Better?," IMF Working Papers 05/230, .
    88. Udaibir S Das & Marc G Quintyn & Kina Chenard, 2004. "Does Regulatory Governance Matter for Financial System Stability? An Empirical Analysis," IMF Working Papers 04/89, .
    89. Choudhry Tanveer Shehzad & Jakob de Haan, 2009. "Financial Reform and Banking Crises," CESifo Working Paper Series 2870, CESifo Group Munich.
    90. Patrick Slovik & Boris Cournède, 2011. "Macroeconomic Impact of Basel III," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 844, OECD Publishing.
    91. Mattoo, Aaditya & Rathindran, Randeep & Subramanian, Arvind, 2001. "Measuring services trade liberalization and its impact on economic growth : an illustration," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2655, The World Bank.
    92. Beck, Thorsten & Levine, Ross & Loayza, Norman, 1999. "Finance and the sources of growth," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2057, The World Bank.
    93. Koivu, Tuuli, 2002. "Do efficient banking sectors accelerate economic growth in transition countries?," BOFIT Discussion Papers 14/2002, Bank of Finland, Institute for Economies in Transition.
    94. Dewitt D Marston, 2001. "Financial System Standards and Financial Stability; The Case of the Basel Core Principles," IMF Working Papers 01/62, .
    95. Hao, Chen, 2006. "Development of financial intermediation and economic growth: The Chinese experience," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 347-362.
    96. Luc Laeven & Fabian Valencia, 2010. "Resolution of Banking Crises; The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly," IMF Working Papers 10/146, .
    97. Paul Wachtel, 2003. "How much do we really know about growth and finance?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, issue Q1, pages 33-47.
    98. Sajid Anwar & Lan Nguyen, 2011. "Financial development and economic growth in Vietnam," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 35(3), pages 348-360, July.
    99. Martin Èihák & Richard Podpiera, 2006. "Is One Watchdog Better than Three? International Experience with Integrated Financial-Sector Supervision (in English)," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 56(3-4), pages 102-126, March.
    100. Walker, Eduardo*Lefort, Fernando, 2002. "Pension reform and capital markets : are there any (hard) links?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 24082, The World Bank.
    101. Svetlana Andrianova & Panicos Demetriades & Anja Shortland, 2010. "Government Ownership of Banks, Institutions and Economic Growth," Discussion Papers in Economics 11/01, Department of Economics, University of Leicester, revised Oct 2010.
    102. Impavido, Gregorio & Musalem, Alberto R. & Tressel, Thierry, 2003. "The impact of contractual savings institutions on securities markets," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2948, The World Bank.
    103. Giovanni Favara, 2003. "An Empirical Reassessment of the Relationship Between Finance and Growth," IMF Working Papers 03/123, .
    104. Eduardo Walker & Fernando Lefort, 2002. "Pension Reform And Capital Markets: Are There Any (Hard) Links?," Abante, Escuela de Administracion. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 5(2), pages 77-149.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6655. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.