IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wbk/wbrwps/6286.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Bank regulation and supervision around the world : a crisis update

Author

Listed:
  • Cihak, Martin
  • Demirguc-Kunt, Asli
  • Peria, Maria Soledad Martinez
  • Mohseni-Cheraghlou, Amin

Abstract

This paper presents the latest update of the World Bank Bank Regulation and Supervision Survey, and explores two questions. First, were there significant differences in regulation and supervision between crisis and non-crisis countries? Second, what aspects of regulation and supervision changed significantly during the crisis period? The paper finds significant differences between crisis and non-crisis countries in several aspects of regulation and supervision. In particular, crisis countries (a) had less stringent definitions of capital and lower actual capital ratios, (b) faced fewer restrictions on non-bank activities, (c) were less strict in the regulatory treatment of bad loans and loan losses, and (d) had weaker incentives for the private sector to monitor banks'risks. Survey results also suggest that the overall regulatory response to the crisis has been slow, and there is room to improve regulation and supervision, as well as private incentives to monitor risk-taking. Specifically, comparing regulatory and supervisory practices before and after the global crisis, the paper finds relatively few changes: capital ratios increased (primarily among non-crisis countries), deposit insurance schemes became more generous, and some reforms were introduced in the area of bank governance and bank resolution.

Suggested Citation

  • Cihak, Martin & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Peria, Maria Soledad Martinez & Mohseni-Cheraghlou, Amin, 2012. "Bank regulation and supervision around the world : a crisis update," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6286, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6286
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2012/12/05/000158349_20121205130523/Rendered/PDF/wps6286.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Mr. Luc Laeven & Mr. Fabian Valencia, 2010. "Resolution of Banking Crises: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly," IMF Working Papers 2010/146, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Luis Servén, 2010. "Are All the Sacred Cows Dead? Implications of the Financial Crisis for Macro- and Financial Policies," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 25(1), pages 91-124, February.
    3. Gerard Caprio & James Barth & Ross Levine, 2008. "Bank Regulations Are Changing: But For Better or Worse?," Center for Development Economics 2008-04, Department of Economics, Williams College.
    4. Barth,James R. & Caprio,Gerard & Levine,Ross, 2008. "Rethinking Bank Regulation," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521709309, February.
    5. Gerard Caprio & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Edward J. Kane, 2010. "The 2007 Meltdown in Structured Securitization: Searching for Lessons, not Scapegoats," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 25(1), pages 125-155, February.
    6. Barth, James R. & Caprio, Gerard Jr. & Levine, Ross, 2012. "Guardians of Finance: Making Regulators Work for Us," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262017393.
    7. Erlend Nier & Ouarda Merrouche, 2010. "What Caused the Global Financial Crisis: Evidenceon the Drivers of Financial Imbalances 1999: 2007," IMF Working Papers 2010/265, International Monetary Fund.
    8. Ross Levine, 2010. "An autopsy of the US financial system: accident, suicide, or negligent homicide," Journal of Financial Economic Policy, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 2(3), pages 196-213, August.
    9. Barth, James R. & Caprio, Gerard Jr. & Levine, Ross, 2004. "Bank regulation and supervision: what works best?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 205-248, April.
    10. Mr. Luc Laeven & Ms. Deniz O Igan & Mr. Stijn Claessens & Mr. Giovanni Dell'Ariccia, 2010. "Lessons and Policy Implications from the Global Financial Crisis," IMF Working Papers 2010/044, International Monetary Fund.
    11. Barth, James R. & Caprio, Gerard, Jr. & Levine, Ross, 2008. "Bank regulations are changing : for better or worse ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4646, The World Bank.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Helberg, Stig & Lindset, Snorre, 2014. "How do asset encumbrance and debt regulations affect bank capital and bond risk?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 39-54.
    2. Chesini, Giusy & Giaretta, Elisa, 2017. "Depositor discipline for better or for worse. What enhanced depositors’ confidence on the banking system in the last ten years?," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 209-227.
    3. Horváth, Bálint L., 2020. "The interaction of bank regulation and taxation," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    4. Ben Maatoug, Abderrazek & Ben Ayed, Wassim & Ftiti, Zied, 2019. "Are MENA banks’ capital buffers countercyclical? Evidence from the Islamic and conventional banking systems," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 74(C), pages 109-118.
    5. Saif-Alyousfi, Abdulazeez Y.H. & Saha, Asish & Md-Rus, Rohani, 2020. "The impact of bank competition and concentration on bank risk-taking behavior and stability: Evidence from GCC countries," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 51(C).
    6. Noelia Camara & Ximena Pena & David Tuesta, 2014. "Factors that Matter for Financial Inclusion: Evidence from Peru," Working Papers 1409, BBVA Bank, Economic Research Department.
    7. Brzoza-Brzezina, Michał & Kolasa, Marcin & Makarski, Krzysztof, 2018. "Crisis, contagion and international policy spillovers under foreign ownership of banks," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 293-304.
    8. Shu Ling Chiang & Ming Shann Tsai, 2019. "The Valuation of Deposit Insurance Premiums Based on a Specific Bank's Official Default Probability," Multinational Finance Journal, Multinational Finance Journal, vol. 23(3-4), pages 141-167, September.
    9. Maria Eleni Agoraki & Anastasios Tsamis, 2017. "Bank Profitability and Regulation in Emerging European Markets," Multinational Finance Journal, Multinational Finance Journal, vol. 21(3), pages 177-210, September.
    10. Deli, Yota D. & Hasan, Iftekhar, 2017. "Real effects of bank capital regulations: Global evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 217-228.
    11. Nedelchev, Miroslav, 2015. "Coordination of banking regulation in the EU," MPRA Paper 66073, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2015.
    12. Conlon, Thomas & Cotter, John & Molyneux, Philip, 2020. "Beyond common equity: The influence of secondary capital on bank insolvency risk," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 47(C).
    13. Agoraki, Maria-Eleni K. & Kouretas, Georgios P. & Triantopoulos, Christos, 2020. "Democracy, regulation and competition in emerging banking systems," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 190-202.
    14. Pelletier, Adeline, 2018. "Performance of foreign banks in developing countries: Evidence from sub-Saharan African banking markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 88(C), pages 292-311.
    15. Steve Motsi & Oluseye Samuel Ajuwon & Collins Ntim, 2018. "Bank Competition in Sub-Saharan African Countries: Has Anything Changed in the Light of 2007-2008 Global FinancialCrisis?," SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, SPOUDAI Journal of Economics and Business, University of Piraeus, vol. 68(1), pages 59-83, January-M.
    16. Fraccaroli, Nicolò, 2019. "Supervisory governance, capture and non‑performing loans," Bank of England working papers 820, Bank of England.
    17. Pasali, Selahattin Selsah, 2013. "Where is the cheese ? synthesizing a giant literature on causes and consequences of financial sector development," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6655, The World Bank.
    18. Choy, Swee Yew & Chit, Myint Moe & Teo, Wing Leong, 2021. "Sovereign credit ratings: Discovering unorthodox factors and variables," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 48(C).
    19. Swamy, Vighneswara, 2014. "Bank regulation, supervision and efficiency during the global financial crisis," MPRA Paper 58295, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Hans Degryse & Sanja Jakovljević & Steven Ongena, 2015. "A Review of Empirical Research on the Design and Impact of Regulation in the Banking Sector," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 7(1), pages 423-443, December.
    21. Yin, Haiyan, 2019. "Bank globalization and financial stability: International evidence," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 207-224.
    22. Carretta, Alessandro & Farina, Vincenzo & Fiordelisi, Franco & Schwizer, Paola & Stentella Lopes, Francesco Saverio, 2015. "Don’t Stand So Close to Me: The role of supervisory style in banking stability," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 180-188.
    23. Shehzad, Choudhry Tanveer & De Haan, Jakob, 2015. "Supervisory powers and bank risk taking," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 15-24.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Avignone, Giuseppe & Altunbas, Yener & Polizzi, Salvatore & Reghezza, Alessio, 2021. "Centralised or decentralised banking supervision? Evidence from European banks," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 110(C).
    2. Mateev, Miroslav & Bachvarov, Petko, 2021. "Regulation, ownership and bank performance in the MENA region: Evidence for Islamic and conventional banks," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(C).
    3. Manlagnit, Maria Chelo V., 2015. "Basel regulations and banks’ efficiency: The case of the Philippines," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 72-85.
    4. Swamy, Vighneswara, 2014. "Bank regulation, supervision and efficiency during the global financial crisis," MPRA Paper 58295, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Cihak, Martin & Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad & Mohseni-Cheraghlou, Amin, 2013. "Bank regulation and supervision in the context of the global crisis," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 733-746.
    6. Fang, Yiwei & Hasan, Iftekhar & Marton, Katherin, 2011. "Market reforms, legal changes and bank risk-taking : evidence from transition economies," Research Discussion Papers 7/2011, Bank of Finland.
    7. Delis, Manthos D & Gaganis, Chrysovalantis & Pasiouras, Fotios, 2009. "Bank liquidity and the board of directors," MPRA Paper 18872, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Alexander, Gordon J. & Baptista, Alexandre M. & Yan, Shu, 2014. "Bank regulation and international financial stability: A case against the 2006 Basel framework for controlling tail risk in trading books," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 107-130.
    9. Barth, James R. & Lin, Chen & Ma, Yue & Seade, Jesús & Song, Frank M., 2013. "Do bank regulation, supervision and monitoring enhance or impede bank efficiency?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 2879-2892.
    10. Lozano-Vivas, Ana & Pasiouras, Fotios, 2010. "The impact of non-traditional activities on the estimation of bank efficiency: International evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(7), pages 1436-1449, July.
    11. Brandao-Marques, Luis & Correa, Ricardo & Sapriza, Horacio, 2020. "Government support, regulation, and risk taking in the banking sector," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 112(C).
    12. Chortareas, Georgios E. & Girardone, Claudia & Ventouri, Alexia, 2012. "Bank supervision, regulation, and efficiency: Evidence from the European Union," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 292-302.
    13. Allen, Franklin & Gu, Xian & Kowalewski, Oskar, 2012. "Financial crisis, structure and reform," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 2960-2973.
    14. Brandao-Marques, L. & Correa, R. & Sapriza, H., 2012. "International Evidence on Government Support and Risk-Taking in the Banking Sector," Other publications TiSEM 4a9756af-eb63-4867-ae29-3, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    15. Jorge Ponce, 2010. "A Normative Analysis of Banking Supervision: Independence, Legal Protection and Accountability," Money Affairs, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, CEMLA, vol. 0(2), pages 141-181, July-Dece.
    16. Carretta, Alessandro & Farina, Vincenzo & Fiordelisi, Franco & Schwizer, Paola & Stentella Lopes, Francesco Saverio, 2015. "Don’t Stand So Close to Me: The role of supervisory style in banking stability," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 180-188.
    17. Ayadi, Rym & Naceur, Sami Ben & Casu, Barbara & Quinn, Barry, 2016. "Does Basel compliance matter for bank performance?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 15-32.
    18. Louhichi, Awatef & Boujelbene, Younes, 2017. "Bank capital, lending and financing behaviour of dual banking systems," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 61-79.
    19. Richard Davies & Belinda Tracey, 2014. "Too Big to Be Efficient? The Impact of Implicit Subsidies on Estimates of Scale Economies for Banks," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 46(s1), pages 219-253, February.
    20. Cihak, Martin & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Johnston, R. Barry, 2013. "Incentive audits : a new approach to financial regulation," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6308, The World Bank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Banks&Banking Reform; Access to Finance; Emerging Markets; Debt Markets; Bankruptcy and Resolution of Financial Distress;
    All these keywords.

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6286. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dvewbus.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Roula I. Yazigi (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dvewbus.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.