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The EU gender earnings gap: Job segregation and working time as driving factors

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  • Boll, Christina
  • Rossen, Anja
  • Wolf, André

Abstract

This paper estimates size and impact factors of the gender pay gap in Europe. It adds to the literature in three aspects. First, we update existing figures on the gender pay gaps in the EU based on the Structure of Earnings Survey 2010 (SES). Second, we enrich the literature by undertaking comprehensive country comparisons of the gap components based on an Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition. Overall, we analyze 21 EU countries plus Norway, which clearly exceeds the scope of existing microdata studies. Third, we examine the sources of the unexplained gap. We find that about one third of the gap can be traced back to the role of the explanatory factors included in our analysis. The sectoral segregation of genders is identified as the most important barrier to gender pay equality in European countries. In addition, the fact that part-time positions are more frequent among women notably contributes to the gap. We conclude that policies aiming at closing the gender pay gap should focus more on the sector level than on the aggregate economy.

Suggested Citation

  • Boll, Christina & Rossen, Anja & Wolf, André, 2016. "The EU gender earnings gap: Job segregation and working time as driving factors," HWWI Research Papers 176, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:hwwirp:176
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    Cited by:

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    3. Kugler,Maurice David & Viollaz,Mariana & Vasconcellos Archer Duque,Daniel & Gaddis,Isis & Newhouse,David Locke & Palacios-Lopez,Amparo & Weber,Michael, 2021. "How Did the COVID-19 Crisis Affect Different Types of Workers in the Developing World ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9703, The World Bank.
    4. Drupp, Moritz A. & Khadjavi, Menusch & Riekhof, Marie-Catherine & Voss, Rudi, 2020. "Professional identity and the gender gap in risk-taking. Evidence from field experiments with scientists," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 170(C), pages 418-432.
    5. Duman, Anil, 2020. "Non-Standard Employment and Wage Differences across Gender: a quantile regression approach," GLO Discussion Paper Series 664, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    6. Izaskun Barba & Belen Iraizoz, 2020. "Effect of the Great Crisis on Sectoral Female Employment in Europe: A Structural Decomposition Analysis," Economies, MDPI, vol. 8(3), pages 1-24, August.
    7. Lara Minkus, 2019. "Labor Market Closure and the Stalling of the Gender Pay Gap," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 1049, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    8. Renata Semenza & Giorgio Boccardo & Simone Sarti, 2021. "So Far, so Similar? Labour Market Feminization in Italy and Chile," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 154(3), pages 917-942, April.
    9. Grass, Karen & Weber, Enzo, 2016. "EU 4.0 - Die Debatte zu Digitalisierung und Arbeitsmarkt in Europa," IAB-Discussion Paper 201639, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gender wage gap; Oaxaca/Blinder decomposition; Europe; Structure of Earnings Survey;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

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