IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Effect of the Great Crisis on Sectoral Female Employment in Europe: A Structural Decomposition Analysis


  • Izaskun Barba

    (Department of Electrical, Electronic and Communications Engineering, Public University of Navarre, Campus Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona, Spain)

  • Belen Iraizoz

    (Department of Economics, Public University of Navarre, Campus Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona, Spain
    Institute for Advanced Research in Business and Economics (INARBE), Campus Arrosadia, 31006 Pamplona, Spain)


Sectoral gender segregation in labor markets is a fact. This paper examines the female distribution of employment by sectors in the EU 28, thereby contributing to the literature on the effects of the recession and subsequent austerity measures on female employment. An input-output model and structural decomposition analysis are used to assess the contribution of factors such as technological change, productivity change and final demand change. The latter had a positive impact over the period of analysis by creating new job opportunities for women, especially in the public service sectors, whereas productivity growth had a negative impact, particularly in the private service sectors. These changes have resulted in a reduction in the level of gender sectoral segregation; change in household expenditure again is the main driver of this reduction. Changing trends in labor requirements and gross capital formation have the opposite effect; thus, these trends increase the level of sectoral segregation.

Suggested Citation

  • Izaskun Barba & Belen Iraizoz, 2020. "Effect of the Great Crisis on Sectoral Female Employment in Europe: A Structural Decomposition Analysis," Economies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(3), pages 1-24, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jecomi:v:8:y:2020:i:3:p:64-:d:397838

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Stephan HUMPERT, 2015. "Gender-based Segregation before and after the Great Recession," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(4(605), W), pages 53-62, Winter.
    2. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2017. "The Gender Wage Gap: Extent, Trends, and Explanations," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 55(3), pages 789-865, September.
    3. Claudia Hupkau & Barbara Petrongolo, 2020. "Work, Care and Gender during the COVID‐19 Crisis," Fiscal Studies, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 41(3), pages 623-651, September.
    4. Skolka, Jiri, 1989. "Input-output structural decomposition analysis for Austria," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 45-66.
    5. Isabelle Sin & Steven Stillman & Richard Fabling, 2017. "What drives the gender wage gap? Examining the roles of sorting, productivity differences, and discrimination," Working Papers 17_15, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
    6. Erik Dietzenbacher & Bart Los, 1998. "Structural Decomposition Techniques: Sense and Sensitivity," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(4), pages 307-324.
    7. Sidita KUSHI & Ian P. McMANUS, 2018. "Gendered costs of austerity: The effects of welfare regime and government policies on employment across the OECD, 2000–13," International Labour Review, International Labour Organization, vol. 157(4), pages 557-587, December.
    8. Boll Christina & Wolf André & Rossen Anja, 2017. "The EU Gender Earnings Gap: Job Segregation and Working Time as Driving Factors," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 237(5), pages 407-452, October.
    9. Kucera, David & Tejani, Sheba, 2014. "Feminization, Defeminization, and Structural Change in Manufacturing," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 569-582.
    10. Claudia Goldin, 2014. "A Grand Gender Convergence: Its Last Chapter," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(4), pages 1091-1119, April.
    11. Yolanda Pena-Boquete & Sergio De Stefanis & Manuel Fernandez-Grela, 2010. "The distribution of gender wage discrimination in Italy and Spain: a comparison using the ECHP," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 31(2), pages 109-137, May.
    12. Giovanni Razzu & Carl Singleton, 2018. "Segregation and Gender Gaps in the United Kingdom's Great Recession and Recovery," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(4), pages 31-55, October.
    13. Rose, A. & Chen, C. Y., 1991. "Sources of change in energy use in the U.S. economy, 1972-1982 : A structural decomposition analysis," Resources and Energy, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 1-21, April.
    14. Magacho, Guilherme R. & McCombie, John S.L. & Guilhoto, Joaquim J.M., 2018. "Impacts of trade liberalization on countries’ sectoral structure of production and trade: A structural decomposition analysis," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 70-77.
    15. Mary Borrowman & Stephan Klasen, 2020. "Drivers of Gendered Sectoral and Occupational Segregation in Developing Countries," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(2), pages 62-94, April.
    16. Sergio Scicchitano, 2012. "The male--female pay gap across the managerial workforce in the United Kingdom: a semi-parametric decomposition approach," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(13), pages 1293-1297, September.
    17. Athena Belegri--roboli & Maria Markaki & Panayotis G. Michaelides, 2011. "Labour Productivity Changes And Working Time: The Case Of Greece," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(3), pages 329-339, June.
    18. Rueda-Cantuche, Jose Manuel & Sousa, Nuno, 2017. "Are EU exports gender-blind? Some key features of women participation in exporting activities in the EU," DG TRADE Chief Economist Notes 2017-3, Directorate General for Trade, European Commission.
    19. Razzu, Giovanni & Singleton, Carl, 2016. "Gender and the business cycle: An analysis of labour markets in the US and UK," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 47(PB), pages 131-146.
    20. Gregory, Mary & Zissimos, Ben & Greenhalgh, Christine, 2001. "Jobs for the Skilled: How Technology, Trade, and Domestic Demand Changed the Structure of UK Employment, 1979-90," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 53(1), pages 20-46, January.
    21. Sergio Scicchitano, 2014. "The gender wage gap among Spanish managers," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 35(3), pages 327-344, May.
    22. Rafa Madariaga, 2018. "Factors driving sectoral and occupational employment changes during the Spanish boom (1995–2005)," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 30(3), pages 400-421, July.
    23. Dürdane Şirin Saraçoğlu & Emel Memiş & Ebru Voyvoda & Burça Kızılırmak, 2018. "Changes in Global Trade Patterns and Women's Employment in Manufacturing, 1995–2011," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(3), pages 1-28, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Marcin Bogdański, 2021. "Employment Diversification as a Determinant of Economic Resilience and Sustainability in Provincial Cities," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 13(9), pages 1-13, April.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Hong, Jae Pyo & Byun, Jeong Eun & Kim, Pang Ryong, 2016. "Structural changes and growth factors of the ICT industry in Korea: 1995–2009," Telecommunications Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(5), pages 502-513.
    2. Sarah Louise Jewell & Giovanni Razzu & Carl Singleton, 2020. "Who Works for Whom and the UK Gender Pay Gap," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 58(1), pages 50-81, March.
    3. Kovalenko, Tim & Töpfer, Marina, 2021. "Cyclical dynamics and the gender pay gap: A structural VAR approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 99(C).
    4. Okushima, Shinichiro & Tamura, Makoto, 2007. "Multiple calibration decomposition analysis: Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the Japanese economy, 1970-1995," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 5156-5170, October.
    5. Jiang Li & Benoit Dostie & Gäelle Simard-Duplain, 2020. "What is the Role of Firm-Specific Pay Policies on the Gender Earnings Gap in Canada?," CIRANO Working Papers 2020s-67, CIRANO.
    6. Joanna Tyrowicz & Lucas van der Velde, 2017. "When the opportunity knocks: large structural shocks and gender wage gaps," GRAPE Working Papers 2, GRAPE Group for Research in Applied Economics.
    7. Jesper Stage, 2002. "Structural Shifts In Namibian Energy Use: An Input‐Output Approach," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 70(6), pages 1103-1125, September.
    8. Katie Meara & Francesco Pastore & Allan Webster, 2020. "The gender pay gap in the USA: a matching study," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 33(1), pages 271-305, January.
    9. Cemal Eren Arbatlı & Quamrul H. Ashraf & Oded Galor & Marc Klemp, 2020. "Diversity and Conflict," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 88(2), pages 727-797, March.
    10. Barigozzi, Francesca & Cremer, Helmuth & Roeder, Kerstin, 2020. "Having it all, for all: Child-care subsidies and income distribution reconciled," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 176(C), pages 188-211.
    11. Ben Sand & Chris Bidner, 2016. "Job Prospects and Pay Gaps: Theory and Evidence on the Gender Gap from U.S. Cities," Discussion Papers dp16-14, Department of Economics, Simon Fraser University.
    12. Jones, Todd R. & Kofoed, Michael S., 2020. "Do peers influence occupational preferences? Evidence from randomly-assigned peer groups at West Point," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 184(C).
    13. Piotr Lewandowski & Katarzyna Lipowska & Iga Magda, 2021. "The Gender Dimension of Occupational Exposure to Contagion in Europe," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(1-2), pages 48-65, April.
    14. Nikolaos Theodoropoulos & John Forth & Alex Bryson, 2019. "Are Women Doing It For Themselves? Gender Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap," DoQSS Working Papers 19-07, Quantitative Social Science - UCL Social Research Institute, University College London.
    15. Barigozzi, Francesca & Cremer, Helmuth & Roeder, Kerstin, 2020. "Caregivers in the family: Daughters, sons and social norms," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 130(C).
    16. Gallen, Yana & Wasserman, Melanie, 2021. "Informed Choices: Gender Gaps in Career Advice," CEPR Discussion Papers 15728, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    17. Adamus, Magdalena & Mikušková, Eva Ballová, 2020. "Gender-based wage discrimination and the backlash effect in recruitment and dismissal processes Experimental evidence from Slovakia," OSF Preprints 4y6uc, Center for Open Science.
    18. Benjamin Hansen & Drew McNichols, 2020. "Information and the Persistence of the Gender Wage Gap: Early Evidence from California's Salary History Ban," NBER Working Papers 27054, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Naomi Friedman-Sokuler & Claudia Senik, 2020. "From Pink-Collar to Lab Coat. Cultural Persistence and Diffusion of Socialist Gender Norms," PSE Working Papers halshs-02872229, HAL.
    20. Berniell, Inés & Berniell, Lucila & Mata, Dolores de la & Edo, María & Marchionni, Mariana, 2021. "Gender gaps in labor informality: The motherhood effect," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 150(C).


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jecomi:v:8:y:2020:i:3:p:64-:d:397838. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: XML Conversion Team (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.