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How Did the COVID-19 Crisis Affect Different Types of Workers in the Developing World?

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Listed:
  • Maurice Kugler
  • Mariana Viollaz
  • Daniel Duque
  • Isis Gaddis
  • David Newhouse
  • Amparo Palacios-Lopez
  • Michael Weber

Abstract

This paper investigates the impacts of the economic shock caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on the employment of different types of workers in developing countries. Employment outcomes are taken from a set of high-frequency phone surveys conducted by the World Bank and National Statistics Offices in 40 countries. Larger shares of female, young, less educated, and urban workers stopped working. Gender gaps in work stoppage were particularly pronounced and stemmed mainly from differences within sectors rather than differential employment patterns across sectors. Differences in work stoppage between urban and rural workers were markedly smaller than those across gender, age, and education groups. Preliminary results from 10 countries suggest that following the initial shock at the start of the pandemic, employment rates partially recovered between April and August, with greater gains for those groups that had borne the brunt of the early jobs losses. Although the high-frequency phone surveys greatly over-represent household heads and therefore overestimate employment rates, case studies in five countries suggest that they provide a reasonably accurate measure of disparities in employment levels by gender, education, and urban/rural location following the onset of the crisis, although they perform less well in capturing disparities between age groups. These results shed new light on the labor market consequences of the COVID-19 crisis in developing countries, and suggest that real-time phone surveys, despite their lack of representativeness, are a valuable source of information to measure differential employment impacts across groups during a crisis.
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  • Maurice Kugler & Mariana Viollaz & Daniel Duque & Isis Gaddis & David Newhouse & Amparo Palacios-Lopez & Michael Weber, 2021. "How Did the COVID-19 Crisis Affect Different Types of Workers in the Developing World?," World Bank Publications - Reports 36168, The World Bank Group.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wboper:36168
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    Cited by:

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    2. Alfonsi, Livia & Namubiru, Mary & Spaziani, Sara, 2022. "Gender Gaps: Back and Here to Stay? Evidence from Skilled Ugandan Workers during COVID-19," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt44s4b2dk, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
    3. Marjit, Sugata & Das, Gouranga, 2022. "Contact Intensity, Unemployment and Finite Change - The Case of Entertainment Sector under Pandemic: A General Equilibrium Approach," GLO Discussion Paper Series 1200, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    4. Mariana Viollaz & Mauricio Salazar-Saenz & Luca Flabbim & Monserrat Bustelo & Mariano Bosch, 2022. "The COVID-19 Pandemic in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The Labor Supply Impact by Gender," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0296, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
    5. Goldstein,Markus P. & Gonzalez Martinez,Paula Lorena & Papineni,Sreelakshmi & Wimpey,Joshua Seth, 2022. "Childcare, COVID-19 and Female Firm Exit : Impact of COVID-19 School Closure Policies onGlobal Gender Gaps in Business Outcomes," Policy Research Working Paper Series 10012, The World Bank.
    6. Torres,Jesica & Maduko,Franklin Okechukwu & Gaddis,Isis & Iacovone,Leonardo & Beegle,Kathleen G., 2021. "The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Women-Led Businesses," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9817, The World Bank.
    7. Contreras-Gonzalez, Ivette & Oseni, Gbemisola & Palacios-Lopez, Amparo & Pieters, Janneke & Weber, Michael, 2022. "Inequalities in Job Loss and Income Loss in Sub-Saharan Africa during the COVID-19 Crisis," IZA Discussion Papers 15406, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    8. Lauren Hoehn-Velasco & Adan Silverio-Murillo & Jose Roberto Balmori de la Miyar & Jacob Penglase, 2022. "The impact of the COVID-19 recession on Mexican households: evidence from employment and time use for men, women, and children," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 763-797, September.
    9. Remi Jedwab & Roberto Samaniego & Paul Romer & Asif Islam, 2022. "Scars of Pandemics from Lost Schooling and Experience: Aggregate Implications and Gender Differences Through the Lens of COVID-19," Working Papers 2022-02, The George Washington University, Institute for International Economic Policy.
    10. Narayan,Ambar & Cojocaru,Alexandru & Agrawal,Sarthak & Bundervoet,Tom & Davalos,Maria Eugenia & Garcia,Natalia & Lakner,Christoph & Mahler,Daniel Gerszon & Montalva Talledo,Veronica Sonia & Ten,Andrey, 2022. "COVID-19 and Economic Inequality : Short-Term Impacts with Long-Term Consequences," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9902, The World Bank.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gender and Development Rural Labor Markets Labor Markets Educational Sciences Gender Rural Development Social Protections and Labor Education;

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure

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