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How Did the COVID-19 Crisis Affect Different Types of Workers in the Developing World ?

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  • Kugler,Maurice David
  • Viollaz,Mariana
  • Vasconcellos Archer Duque,Daniel
  • Gaddis,Isis
  • Newhouse,David Locke
  • Palacios-Lopez,Amparo
  • Weber,Michael

Abstract

This paper investigates the impacts of the economic shock caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on theemployment of different types of workers in developing countries. Employment outcomes are taken from a set ofhigh-frequency phone surveys conducted by the World Bank and National Statistics Offices in 40 countries. Larger sharesof female, young, less educated, and urban workers stopped working. Gender gaps in work stoppage were particularlypronounced and stemmed mainly from differences within sectors rather than differential employment patterns acrosssectors. Differences in work stoppage between urban and rural workers were markedly smaller than those acrossgender, age, and education groups. Preliminary results from 10 countries suggest that following the initial shock at thestart of the pandemic, employment rates partially recovered between April and August, with greater gains for thosegroups that had borne the brunt of the early jobs losses. Although the high-frequency phone surveys greatlyover-represent household heads and therefore overestimate employment rates, case studies in five countries suggestthat they provide a reasonably accurate measure of disparities in employment levels by gender, education, andurban/rural location following the onset of the crisis,although they perform less well in capturing disparities between age groups. These results shed new light on thelabor market consequences of the COVID-19 crisis in developing countries, and suggest that real-time phonesurveys, despite their lack of representativeness, are a valuable source of information to measure differentialemployment impacts across groups during a crisis.

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  • Kugler,Maurice David & Viollaz,Mariana & Vasconcellos Archer Duque,Daniel & Gaddis,Isis & Newhouse,David Locke & Palacios-Lopez,Amparo & Weber,Michael, 2021. "How Did the COVID-19 Crisis Affect Different Types of Workers in the Developing World ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9703, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:9703
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    Cited by:

    1. Mariana Viollaz & Mauricio Salazar-Saenz & Luca Flabbim & Monserrat Bustelo & Mariano Bosch, 2022. "The COVID-19 Pandemic in Latin American and Caribbean countries: The Labor Supply Impact by Gender," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0296, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
    2. Remi Jedwab & Roberto Samaniego & Paul Romer & Asif Islam, 2022. "Scars of Pandemics from Lost Schooling and Experience: Aggregate Implications and Gender Differences Through the Lens of COVID-19," Working Papers 2022-02, The George Washington University, Institute for International Economic Policy.
    3. Alfonsi, Livia & Namubiru, Mary & Spaziani, Sara, 2022. "Gender Gaps: Back and Here to Stay? Evidence from Skilled Ugandan Workers during COVID-19," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt44s4b2dk, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
    4. Marjit, Sugata & Das, Gouranga, 2022. "Contact Intensity, Unemployment and Finite Change - The Case of Entertainment Sector under Pandemic: A General Equilibrium Approach," GLO Discussion Paper Series 1200, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    5. Jessica Bracco & Leonardo Gasparini & Mariana Marchionni & Guido Neidhöfer & Matías Ciaschi, 2022. "The impact of COVID-19 on education in Latin America: long-run implications on poverty and inequality," Asociación Argentina de Economía Política: Working Papers 4544, Asociación Argentina de Economía Política.
    6. María del Pilar Toyos, 2022. "Cierre de escuelas en pandemia y brechas de género en Argentina: ¿madres más vulnerables?," Asociación Argentina de Economía Política: Working Papers 4603, Asociación Argentina de Economía Política.
    7. M. O. Oleche & D. K. Manda & R. G. Mutegi & S. Kipruto & M. K. Muriithi & P. Samoei & A. W. Ndirangu & G. Mwabu, 2023. "The gendered impacts of COVID-19 and business closure due to lockdown on wage employment in Kenya," Journal of Economic Policy and Management Issues, JEPMI, vol. 2(2), pages 31-48.
    8. Acevedo, Ivonne & Castellani, Francesca & Lotti, Giulia & Székely, Miguel, 2022. "Labor Market Gender Gaps in the Time of COVID-19 in Latin America and the Caribbean," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 12568, Inter-American Development Bank.
    9. Kibrom A Abay & Nishant Yonzan & Sikandra Kurdi & Kibrom Tafere, 2023. "Revisiting Poverty Trends and the Role of Social Protection Systems in Africa during the COVID-19 Pandemic," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies, vol. 32(Supplemen), pages 44-68.
    10. De Paz Nieves,Carmen & Gaddis,Isis & Muller,Miriam, 2021. "Gender and COVID-19 : What have we learnt, one year later ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9709, The World Bank.
    11. Jesica Torres & Franklin Maduko & Isis Gaddis & Leonardo Iacovone & Kathleen Beegle, 2023. "The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Women-Led Businesses," The World Bank Research Observer, World Bank, vol. 38(1), pages 36-72.
    12. de Mello-Sampayo, F.;, 2024. "Uncertainty in Healthcare Policy Decisions: An Epidemiological Real Options Approach to COVID-19 Lockdown Exits," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 24/01, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
    13. Goldstein,Markus P. & Gonzalez Martinez,Paula Lorena & Papineni,Sreelakshmi & Wimpey,Joshua Seth, 2022. "Childcare, COVID-19 and Female Firm Exit : Impact of COVID-19 School Closure Policies onGlobal Gender Gaps in Business Outcomes," Policy Research Working Paper Series 10012, The World Bank.
    14. Contreras-Gonzalez, Ivette & Oseni, Gbemisola & Palacios-Lopez, Amparo & Pieters, Janneke & Weber, Michael, 2022. "Inequalities in Job Loss and Income Loss in Sub-Saharan Africa during the COVID-19 Crisis," IZA Discussion Papers 15406, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    15. Viollaz Mariana & Salazar-Saenz Mauricio & Flabbi Luca & Bustelo Monserrat & Bosch Mariano, 2023. "The COVID-19 Pandemic in Latin American and Caribbean countries: Gender Differentials in Labor Market Dynamics," IZA Journal of Development and Migration, Sciendo & Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 14(1), pages 1-57, January.
    16. Inés Berniell & Leonardo Gasparini & Mariana Marchionni & Mariana Viollaz, 2023. "The role of children and work-from-home in gender labor market asymmetries: evidence from the COVID-19 pandemic in Latin America," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 21(4), pages 1191-1214, December.
    17. Lauren Hoehn-Velasco & Adan Silverio-Murillo & Jose Roberto Balmori de la Miyar & Jacob Penglase, 2022. "The impact of the COVID-19 recession on Mexican households: evidence from employment and time use for men, women, and children," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 763-797, September.
    18. Narayan,Ambar & Cojocaru,Alexandru & Agrawal,Sarthak & Bundervoet,Tom & Davalos,Maria Eugenia & Garcia,Natalia & Lakner,Christoph & Mahler,Daniel Gerszon & Montalva Talledo,Veronica Sonia & Ten,Andrey, 2022. "COVID-19 and Economic Inequality : Short-Term Impacts with Long-Term Consequences," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9902, The World Bank.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Gender and Development; Educational Sciences; Rural Labor Markets; Labor Markets;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • J15 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Minorities, Races, Indigenous Peoples, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure

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