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Gender, ethnicity and cumulative disadvantage in education : evidence from Latin American and African censuses

  • Tas, Emcet O.
  • Reimao, Maira Emy
  • Orlando, Maria Beatriz

This paper studies the impact of gender and ethnicity on educational outcomes using cross-country evidence from Bolivia, Mexico, Peru, Senegal, and Sierra Leone. It uses the Minnesota Population Center's Integrated Public Use Microdata Series-International database, which includes individual-level data from large, harmonized, and representative samples of country censuses. Using an estimation method analogous to difference-in-differences, the paper finds that gender-based differences in literacy, primary school completion, and secondary school completion are larger for minority ethnic groups compared with others or, alternatively, ethnicity-based differences are larger for women compared with men. The findings suggest that the intersection of gender and ethnicity confers cumulative disadvantage for minority groups, especially in Latin America. The paper discusses the implications of these findings on the design of, targeting in, and resource allocation for development programs.

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Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 6734.

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Date of creation: 01 Dec 2013
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Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6734
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  1. Caren Grown & Emcet Tas, 2010. "Gender Equality in the US Labor Markets in the "Great Recession" of 2007-2010," Working Papers 2010-15, American University, Department of Economics.
  2. A Chevalier & C Harmon & V O'Sullivan & I Walker, 2010. "The Impact of Parental Income and Education on the Schooling of their Children," Working Papers 610852, Lancaster University Management School, Economics Department.
  3. Otrude Moyo & Saliwe Kawewe, 2002. "The Dynamics of a Racialized, Gendered, Ethnicized, and Economically Stratified Society: Understanding the Socio-Economic Status of Women in Zimbabwe," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(2), pages 163-181.
  4. Rose Brewer & Cecilia Conrad & Mary King, 2002. "The Complexities and Potential of Theorizing Gender, Caste, Race, and Class," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(2), pages 3-17.
  5. Carr-Hill, Roy, 2013. "Missing Millions and Measuring Development Progress," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 30-44.
  6. Nopo, Hugo & Atal, Juan Pablo & Winder, Natalia, 2010. "New Century, Old Disparities: Gender and Ethnic Wage Gaps in Latin America," IZA Discussion Papers 5085, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Sen, Gita & Iyer, Aditi, 2012. "Who gains, who loses and how: Leveraging gender and class intersections to secure health entitlements," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 74(11), pages 1802-1811.
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