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Effect of School Factors on Gender Gaps in Learning Opportunities in Rural Senegal: Does School Governance Matter?


  • Nishimura, Mikiko


In the international sphere, gender equality is primarily discussed in relation to the gender parity index (GPI), a female to male ratio of enrollment. This paper attempts to adopt a wider scope of gender equality that includes continuous learning and achievement. By using the data from 306 primary schools in rural Senegal, collected by the Japan International Cooperation Agency Research Institute (JICA-RI), this paper examined school factors that affect the gender gaps in internal efficiency and learning achievement by considering policy input and the environment at the school level. The results show that the existence of a school management committee (“CGE”), is associated with lower dropout rates for both boys and girls and that the amount of financial contribution made by a CGE is correlated with fewer gender gaps in the number of dropouts and the repetition rate. We also found that providing parents with a periodic report on students’ attendance and learning achieveme nts as well as offering remedial lessons is negatively correlated with gender gaps in the repetition rate. Although we need to further investigate the mechanism that brought about this result, learning support initiatives may affect students differently according to gender depending on how one plans and implements them. School-level interventions should mainstream gender considerations so as to ensure gender equality in learning processes and achievements.

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  • Nishimura, Mikiko, 2017. "Effect of School Factors on Gender Gaps in Learning Opportunities in Rural Senegal: Does School Governance Matter?," Working Papers 141, JICA Research Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:jic:wpaper:141

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Felipe Barrera-Osorio & Tazeen Fasih & Harry Anthony Patrinos & Lucrecia Santibáñez, 2009. "Decentralized Decision-making in Schools : The Theory and Evidence on School-based Management," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 2632, December.
    2. Eric A. Hanushek, 2003. "The Failure of Input-Based Schooling Policies," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(485), pages 64-98, February.
    3. Hanushek, Eric A. & Link, Susanne & Woessmann, Ludger, 2013. "Does school autonomy make sense everywhere? Panel estimates from PISA," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 212-232.
    4. Tas, Emcet O. & Reimao, Maira Emy & Orlando, Maria Beatriz, 2013. "Gender, ethnicity and cumulative disadvantage in education : evidence from Latin American and African censuses," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6734, The World Bank.
    5. Michaelowa, Katharina, 2001. "Primary Education Quality in Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa: Determinants of Learning Achievement and Efficiency Considerations," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 1699-1716, October.
    6. Mark Montgomery & Paul C. Hewett, 2005. "Poverty and Children's Schooling in Urban and Rural Senegal," Department of Economics Working Papers 05-08, Stony Brook University, Department of Economics.
    7. Abdoulaye Diagne, 2005. "Une modélisation des déterminants des décisions de scolarisation primaire des ménages au Sénégal," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 17(2), pages 244-273.
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    gender; primary education; SABER; school governance; Senegal; rural schools;

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