IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/cpr/ceprdp/15962.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

From Mancession to Shecession: Women's Employment in Regular and Pandemic Recessions

Author

Listed:
  • Alon, Titan
  • Coskun, Sena
  • Doepke, Matthias
  • Koll, David
  • Tertilt, Michèle

Abstract

We examine the impact of the global recession triggered by the Covid-19 pandemic on women's versus men's employment. Whereas recent recessions in advanced economies usually had a disproportionate impact on men's employment, giving rise to the moniker "mancessions," we show that the pandemic recession of 2020 was a "shecession" in most countries with larger employment declines among women. We examine the causes behind this pattern using micro data from several national labor force surveys, and show that both the composition of women's employment across industries and occupations as well as increased childcare needs during closures of schools and daycare centers made important contributions. While many countries exhibit similar patterns, we also emphasize how policy choices such as furloughing policies and the extent of school closures shape the pandemic's impact on the labor market. Another notable finding is the central role of telecommuting: gender gaps in the employment impact of the pandemic arise almost entirely among workers who are unable to work from home. Nevertheless, among telecommuters a different kind of gender gap arises: women working from home during the pandemic spent more work time also doing childcare and experienced greater productivity reductions than men. We discuss what our findings imply for gender equality in a post-pandemic labor market that will likely continue to be characterized by pervasive telecommuting.

Suggested Citation

  • Alon, Titan & Coskun, Sena & Doepke, Matthias & Koll, David & Tertilt, Michèle, 2021. "From Mancession to Shecession: Women's Employment in Regular and Pandemic Recessions," CEPR Discussion Papers 15962, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:15962
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.cepr.org/active/publications/discussion_papers/dp.php?dpno=15962
    Download Restriction: CEPR Discussion Papers are free to download for our researchers, subscribers and members. If you fall into one of these categories but have trouble downloading our papers, please contact us at subscribers@cepr.org
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Barrero, Jose Maria & Bloom, Nick & Davis, Steven J., 2020. "Why Working From Home Will Stick," SocArXiv wfdbe, Center for Open Science.
    2. Jochen Mankart & Rigas Oikonomou, 2017. "Household Search and the Aggregate Labour Market," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 84(4), pages 1735-1788.
    3. Doepke, M. & Tertilt, M., 2016. "Families in Macroeconomics," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & Harald Uhlig (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 1789-1891, Elsevier.
    4. Pierre‐Loup Beauregard & Marie Connolly & Catherine Haeck & Tímea Laura Molnár, 2022. "Primary school reopenings and parental work," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 55(S1), pages 248-281, February.
    5. Claudia Hupkau & Barbara Petrongolo, 2020. "Work, Care and Gender during the COVID‐19 Crisis," Fiscal Studies, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 41(3), pages 623-651, September.
    6. Agostinelli, Francesco & Doepke, Matthias & Sorrenti, Giuseppe & Zilibotti, Fabrizio, 2022. "When the great equalizer shuts down: Schools, peers, and parents in pandemic times," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 206(C).
    7. Jordy Meekes & Wolter H. J. Hassink & Guyonne Kalb, 2020. "Essential work and emergency childcare: Identifying gender differences in COVID-19 effects on labour demand and supply," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2020n24, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
    8. Laura Montenovo & Xuan Jiang & Felipe Lozano Rojas & Ian M. Schmutte & Kosali I. Simon & Bruce A. Weinberg & Coady Wing, 2020. "Determinants of Disparities in Covid-19 Job Losses," NBER Working Papers 27132, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Alison Andrew & Sarah Cattan & Monica Costa Dias & Christine Farquharson & Lucy Kraftman & Sonya Krutikova & Angus Phimister & Almudena Sevilla, 2022. "The gendered division of paid and domestic work under lockdown," Fiscal Studies, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 43(4), pages 325-340, December.
    10. Haomin Wang, 2019. "Intra-Household Risk Sharing and Job Search over the Business Cycle," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 34, pages 165-182, October.
    11. Gustavo Leyva & Carlos Urrutia, 2023. "Informal Labor Markets in Times of Pandemic," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 47, pages 158-185, January.
    12. Yana Gallen, 2018. "Motherhood and the Gender Productivity Gap," Working Papers 2018-091, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.
    13. Ortigueira, Salvador & Siassi, Nawid, 2013. "How important is intra-household risk sharing for savings and labor supply?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(6), pages 650-666.
    14. Almudena Sevilla & Sarah Smith, 2020. "Baby steps: the gender division of childcare during the COVID-19 pandemic," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 36(Supplemen), pages 169-186.
    15. Grewenig, Elisabeth & Lergetporer, Philipp & Werner, Katharina & Woessmann, Ludger & Zierow, Larissa, 2021. "COVID-19 and educational inequality: How school closures affect low- and high-achieving students," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 140(C).
    16. Chunzan Wu & Dirk Krueger, 2021. "Consumption Insurance against Wage Risk: Family Labor Supply and Optimal Progressive Income Taxation," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 13(1), pages 79-113, January.
    17. Stevens, Ann Huff, 1997. "Persistent Effects of Job Displacement: The Importance of Multiple Job Losses," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 165-188, January.
    18. Titan Alon & Minki Kim & David Lagakos, 2020. "How Should Policy Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic Differ in the Developing World?," Boston University - Department of Economics - The Institute for Economic Development Working Papers Series dp-350, Boston University - Department of Economics.
    19. Youngsoo Jang & Minchul Yum, 2020. "Aggregate and Intergenerational Implications of School Closures: A Quantitative Assessment," CRC TR 224 Discussion Paper Series crctr224_2020_234v1, University of Bonn and University of Mannheim, Germany.
    20. Brad M. Barber & Wei Jiang & Adair Morse & Manju Puri & Heather Tookes & Ingrid M. Werner, 2021. "What Explains Differences in Finance Research Productivity during the Pandemic?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 76(4), pages 1655-1697, August.
    21. Alexander Bick, 2016. "The Quantitative Role Of Child Care For Female Labor Force Participation And Fertility," Journal of the European Economic Association, European Economic Association, vol. 14(3), pages 639-668, June.
    22. Stefania Albanesi & Jiyeon Kim, 2021. "The Gendered Impact of the COVID-19 Recession on the US Labor Market," NBER Working Papers 28505, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    23. Alexander Bick & Bettina Brüggemann & Nicola Fuchs‐Schündeln, 2019. "Hours Worked in Europe and the United States: New Data, New Answers," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 121(4), pages 1381-1416, October.
    24. Benjamin W. Cowan, 2020. "Short-run Effects of COVID-19 on U.S. Worker Transitions," NBER Working Papers 27315, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    25. Mennuni, Alessandro, 2019. "The aggregate implications of changes in the labour force composition," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 83-106.
    26. Jonna Olsson, 2019. "Structural transformation of the labor market and the aggregate economy," 2019 Meeting Papers 619, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    27. Ms. Marina Mendes Tavares & Ms. Stefania Fabrizio, 2021. "COVID-19 She-Cession: The Employment Penalty of Taking Care of Young Children," IMF Working Papers 2021/058, International Monetary Fund.
    28. Misty L. Heggeness, 2020. "Estimating the immediate impact of the COVID-19 shock on parental attachment to the labor market and the double bind of mothers," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 18(4), pages 1053-1078, December.
    29. Dang, Hai-Anh H. & Viet Nguyen, Cuong, 2021. "Gender inequality during the COVID-19 pandemic: Income, expenditure, savings, and job loss," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 140(C).
    30. Sena Coskun & Husnu Dalgic, 2020. "The Emergence of Procyclical Fertility: The Role of Gender Differences in Employment Risk," CRC TR 224 Discussion Paper Series crctr224_2020_142v2, University of Bonn and University of Mannheim, Germany.
    31. Moehring, Katja & Reifenscheid, Maximiliane & Weiland, Andreas, 2021. "Is the Recession a ‘Shecession’? Gender Inequality in the Employment Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Germany," SocArXiv tzma5, Center for Open Science.
    32. Almudena Sevilla & Sarah Smith, 0. "Baby steps: the gender division of childcare during the COVID-19 pandemic," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 36(Supplemen), pages 169-186.
    33. Jang, Youngsoo & Yum, Minchul, 2020. "Aggregate and Intergenerational Implications of School Closures: A Quantitative Assessment," MPRA Paper 107593, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    34. Orazio P. Attanasio & Luigi Pistaferri, 2016. "Consumption Inequality," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 30(2), pages 3-28, Spring.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Alon, Titan & Doepke, Matthias & Olmstead-Rumsey, Jane & Tertilt, Michèle, 2020. "This Time It's Different: The Role of Women's Employment in a Pandemic Recession," IZA Discussion Papers 13562, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Giulia Bettin & Isabella Giorgetti & Stefano Staffolani, 2022. "The Impact Of Covid-19 Lockdown On The Gender Gap In The Italian Labour Market," Working Papers 460, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
    3. Fukai, Taiyo & Ikeda, Masato & Kawaguchi, Daiji & Yamaguchi, Shintaro, 2021. "COVID-19 and the Employment Gender Gap," IZA Discussion Papers 14711, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    4. Kugler, Maurice David & Viollaz, Mariana & Vasconcellos Archer Duque, Daniel & Gaddis, Isis & Newhouse, David Locke & Palacios-Lopez, Amparo & Weber, Michael, 2021. "How Did the COVID-19 Crisis Affect Different Types of Workers in the Developing World?," Jobs Group Papers, Notes, and Guides 33191003, The World Bank.
    5. Fiaschi, Davide & Tealdi, Cristina, 2022. "Scarring Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Italian Labour Market," IZA Discussion Papers 15102, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Maite Blázquez & Ainhoa Herrarte & Ana I. Moro Egido, 2021. "Has the COVID-19 pandemic widened the gender gap in paid work hours in Spain?," ThE Papers 21/05, Department of Economic Theory and Economic History of the University of Granada..
    7. Stefanie Stantcheva, 2022. "Inequalities in the Times of a Pandemic," NBER Working Papers 29657, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Han, Joseph, 2021. "Who's Hit Hardest? The Persistence of the Employment Shock by the COVID-19 Crisis," KDI Journal of Economic Policy, Korea Development Institute (KDI), vol. 43(2), pages 23-51.
    9. Alison Andrew & Sarah Cattan & Monica Costa Dias & Christine Farquharson & Lucy Kraftman & Sonya Krutikova & Angus Phimister & Almudena Sevilla, 2022. "The gendered division of paid and domestic work under lockdown," Fiscal Studies, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 43(4), pages 325-340, December.
    10. Mangiavacchi, Lucia & Piccoli, Luca & Pieroni, Luca, 2021. "Fathers matter: Intrahousehold responsibilities and children's wellbeing during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 42(C).
    11. Nezih Guner & Yuliya Kulikova & Arnau Valladares-Esteban, 2020. "Does the Added Worker Effect Matter?," Working Papers wp2020_2001, CEMFI.
    12. Stefania Albanesi & Jiyeon Kim, 2021. "The Gendered Impact of the COVID-19 Recession on the US Labor Market," NBER Working Papers 28505, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Makoto Nirei & Nao Sudo, 2020. "Necessities, Home Production, and Economic Impacts of Stay-at-Home Policies," IMES Discussion Paper Series 20-E-14, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan.
    14. Gema Zamarro & María J. Prados, 2021. "Gender differences in couples’ division of childcare, work and mental health during COVID-19," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 11-40, March.
    15. Claudia Hupkau & Barbara Petrongolo, 2020. "Work, Care and Gender during the COVID‐19 Crisis," Fiscal Studies, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 41(3), pages 623-651, September.
    16. Serdar Birinci, 2019. "Spousal Labor Supply Response to Job Displacement and Implications for Optimal Transfers," Working Papers 2019-020, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, revised 25 Sep 2021.
    17. David R. Agrawal & Aline Bütikofer, 2022. "Public finance in the era of the COVID-19 crisis," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 29(6), pages 1349-1372, December.
    18. Doepke, M. & Tertilt, M., 2016. "Families in Macroeconomics," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & Harald Uhlig (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 1789-1891, Elsevier.
    19. Stefanie Huber, 2022. "SHE canÕt afford it and HE doesnÕt want it: The gender gap in the COVID-19 consumption response," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 22-029/II, Tinbergen Institute.
    20. Charlene Marie Kalenkoski & Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia, 2022. "Impacts of COVID-19 on the self-employed," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 58(2), pages 741-768, February.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Business cycle; COVID-19; Gender equality; gender wage gap; Pandemics; Recessions; School Closures;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D13 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Household Production and Intrahouse Allocation
    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J20 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - General

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:15962. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://www.cepr.org .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://www.cepr.org .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.