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Why Is Mommy So Stressed? Estimating the Immediate Impact of the COVID-19 Shock on Parental Attachment to the Labor Market and the Double Bind of Mothers

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  • Misty Heggeness

Abstract

I examine the impact of the COVID-19 shock on parents’ labor supply during the initial stages of the pandemic. Using difference-in-difference approaches and monthly panel data from the Current Population Survey (CPS), I compare labor market attachment, non-work activity, hours worked, and earnings and wages of those in areas with early school closures and stay-in-place orders with those in areas with delayed or no pandemic closures. While there was no immediate impact on detachment or unemployment, mothers with jobs in early closure states were 53.2 percent more likely than mothers in late closure states to have a job but not be working as a result of early shutdowns. There was no effect on working fathers or working women without school age children. Of mothers who continued working, those in early closure states worked more weekly hours than mothers in late closure states; fathers reduced their hours. Overall, the pandemic appears to have induced a unique immediate juggling act for working mothers of school age children.

Suggested Citation

  • Misty Heggeness, 2020. "Why Is Mommy So Stressed? Estimating the Immediate Impact of the COVID-19 Shock on Parental Attachment to the Labor Market and the Double Bind of Mothers," Opportunity and Inclusive Growth Institute Working Papers 33, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedmoi:88340
    DOI: 10.21034/iwp.33
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    As found on the RePEc Biblio, the curated bibliography for Economics:
    1. > Economics of Welfare > Health Economics > Economics of Pandemics > Specific pandemics > Covid-19 > Economic consequences > Employment and Work > Intra-household allocation

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    Cited by:

    1. Isphording, Ingo E. & Diederichs, Marc & van Ewijk, Reyn & Pestel, Nico, 2021. "Schools under Mandatory Testing Can Mitigate the Spread of SARS-CoV-2," IZA Discussion Papers 14844, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Misty L. Heggeness, 2020. "Estimating the immediate impact of the COVID-19 shock on parental attachment to the labor market and the double bind of mothers," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 18(4), pages 1053-1078, December.
    3. Maite Blázquez & Ainhoa Herrarte & Ana I. Moro Egido, 2021. "Has the COVID-19 pandemic widened the gender gap in paid work hours in Spain?," ThE Papers 21/05, Department of Economic Theory and Economic History of the University of Granada..
    4. Maria Jose Luengo-Prado, 2021. "COVID-19 and the Labor Market Outcomes for Prime-Aged Women," Current Policy Perspectives 90899, Federal Reserve Bank of Boston.
    5. Bansak, Cynthia & Grossbard, Shoshana & Wong, Crystal (Ho Po), 2021. "Mothers' Caregiving during COVID: The Impact of Divorce Laws and Homeownership on Women's Labor Force Status," IZA Discussion Papers 14408, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Stefan Jestl & Robert Stehrer, 2021. "EU Employment Dynamics: The Pandemic Years and Beyond," wiiw Research Reports 457, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
    7. Barkowski, Scott & McLaughlin, Joanne Song & Dai, Yinlin, 2020. "Young Children and Parents' Labor Supply during COVID-19," MPRA Paper 102107, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 27 Jul 2020.
    8. Fukai, Taiyo & Ikeda, Masato & Kawaguchi, Daiji & Yamaguchi, Shintaro, 2021. "COVID-19 and the Employment Gender Gap," IZA Discussion Papers 14711, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. Kalenkoski, Charlene M. & Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff, 2020. "Initial Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Employment and Hours of Self-Employed Coupled and Single Workers by Gender and Parental Status," IZA Discussion Papers 13443, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    10. Sugawara, Shinya & Nakamura, Jiro, 2021. "Long-term care at home and female work during the COVID-19 pandemic," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 125(7), pages 859-868.
    11. Katherine Lim & Mike Zabek, 2021. "Women's Labor Force Exits during COVID-19: Differences by Motherhood, Race, and Ethnicity," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2021-067, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Labor supply; Gender; Parenthood; Childcare;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D10 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - General
    • J10 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - General
    • J20 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - General

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