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Gender inequality in COVID-19 times: Evidence from UK Prolific participants

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  • Oreffice, Sonia
  • Quintana-Domeque, Climent

Abstract

We investigate gender differences across multiple dimensions after three months of the first UK lockdown of March 2020, using an online sample of approximately 1,500 Prolific respondents residents in the UK. We find that women's mental health was worse than men's along the four metrics we collected data on, that women were more concerned about getting and spreading the virus, and that women perceived the virus as more prevalent and lethal than men did. Women were also more likely to expect a new lockdown or virus outbreak by the end of 2020, and were more pessimistic about the contemporaneous and future state of the UK economy, as measured by their forecasted contemporaneous and future unemployment rates. We also show that, between earlier in 2020 before the outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic and June 2020, women had increased childcare and housework more than men. Neither the gender gaps in COVID-19-related health and economic concerns nor the gender gaps in the increase in hours of childcare and housework can be accounted for by a rich set of control variables. Instead, we find that the gender gap in mental health can be partially accounted for by the difference in COVID-19-related health concerns between men and women.

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  • Oreffice, Sonia & Quintana-Domeque, Climent, 2020. "Gender inequality in COVID-19 times: Evidence from UK Prolific participants," GLO Discussion Paper Series 738, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:glodps:738
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    Cited by:

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    2. David R. Agrawal & Aline Bütikofer, 2022. "Public finance in the era of the COVID-19 crisis," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 29(6), pages 1349-1372, December.
    3. Claudia Hupkau & Barbara Petrongolo, 2020. "Work, Care and Gender during the COVID‐19 Crisis," Fiscal Studies, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 41(3), pages 623-651, September.
    4. Giulia Bettin & Isabella Giorgetti & Stefano Staffolani, 2022. "The Impact Of Covid-19 Lockdown On The Gender Gap In The Italian Labour Market," Working Papers 460, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
    5. Alfonsi, Livia & Namubiru, Mary & Spaziani, Sara, 2022. "Gender Gaps: Back and Here to Stay? Evidence from Skilled Ugandan Workers during COVID-19," Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, Working Paper Series qt44s4b2dk, Institute of Industrial Relations, UC Berkeley.
    6. Lepinteur, Anthony & Clark, Andrew E. & Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada & Piper, Alan & Schröder, Carsten & D'Ambrosio, Conchita, 2022. "Gender, Loneliness and Happiness during COVID-19," IZA Discussion Papers 15653, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Anna Petherick & Rafael Goldszmidt & Eduardo B. Andrade & Rodrigo Furst & Thomas Hale & Annalena Pott & Andrew Wood, 2021. "A worldwide assessment of changes in adherence to COVID-19 protective behaviours and hypothesized pandemic fatigue," Nature Human Behaviour, Nature, vol. 5(9), pages 1145-1160, September.
    8. Stefanie Stantcheva, 2022. "Inequalities in the Times of a Pandemic," NBER Working Papers 29657, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Maite Blázquez & Ainhoa Herrarte & Ana I. Moro Egido, 2021. "Has the COVID-19 pandemic widened the gender gap in paid work hours in Spain?," ThE Papers 21/05, Department of Economic Theory and Economic History of the University of Granada..
    10. Aksoy, Billur & Carpenter, Christopher S. & Sansone, Dario, 2022. "Understanding Labor Market Discrimination against Transgender People: Evidence from a Double List Experiment and a Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 15542, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    11. Barili, E. & Bertoli, P. & Grembi, V. & Rattini, V., 2021. "COVID Angels Fighting Daily Demons? Mental Health of Healthcare Workers and Religion," Health, Econometrics and Data Group (HEDG) Working Papers 21/05, HEDG, c/o Department of Economics, University of York.
    12. Karina Doorley & Cathal O’Donoghue & Denisa M. Sologon, 2022. "The Gender Gap in Income and the COVID-19 Pandemic in Ireland," Social Sciences, MDPI, vol. 11(7), pages 1-23, July.
    13. Lindley, Joanne & Rienzo, Cinzia, 2021. "The Effect of Repeated Lockdowns during the Covid-19 Pandemic on UK Mental Health Outcomes," GLO Discussion Paper Series 977, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    14. Kim, Jun Hyung & Koh, Yu Kyung & Park, Jinseong, 2021. "Mental Health Consequences of Working from Home during the Pandemic," GLO Discussion Paper Series 960, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    15. Zuzanna Kowalik & Piotr Lewandowski, 2021. "The gender gap in aversion to COVID-19 exposure: Evidence from professional tennis," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 16(3), pages 1-10, March.
    16. Goldstein,Markus P. & Gonzalez Martinez,Paula Lorena & Papineni,Sreelakshmi & Wimpey,Joshua Seth, 2022. "Childcare, COVID-19 and Female Firm Exit : Impact of COVID-19 School Closure Policies onGlobal Gender Gaps in Business Outcomes," Policy Research Working Paper Series 10012, The World Bank.
    17. Jordy Meekes & Wolter H. J. Hassink & Guyonne Kalb, 2020. "Essential work and emergency childcare: Identifying gender differences in COVID-19 effects on labour demand and supply," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2020n24, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
    18. Doorley, Karina & Privalko, Ivan & Russell, Helen & Tuda, Dora, 2021. "The Gender Pay Gap in Ireland from Austerity through Recovery," IZA Discussion Papers 14441, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    19. Singh, Vikkram & Shirazi, Homayoun & Turetken, Jessica, 2022. "COVID-19 and gender disparities: Labour market outcomes," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(3), pages 206-217.
    20. Sonia Oreffice & Climent Quintana-Domeque, 2021. "COVID-19 Information, Demand and Willingness to Pay for Protective Gear in the UK," Studies in Microeconomics, , vol. 9(2), pages 180-195, December.
    21. Paudel, Jayash, 2021. "Home Alone: Implications of COVID-19 for Mental Health," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 285(C).
    22. Monika Queisser, 2021. "COVID-19 and OECD Labour Markets: What Impact on Gender Gaps?," Intereconomics: Review of European Economic Policy, Springer;ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics;Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), vol. 56(5), pages 249-253, September.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Coronavirus; sex; inequity; wellbeing; mental health; anxiety; employment; concerns; perceptions; donations; time allocation; childcare; housework;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • H1 - Public Economics - - Structure and Scope of Government
    • J1 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

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