IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/zbw/glodps/664.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Non-Standard Employment and Wage Differences across Gender: a quantile regression approach

Author

Listed:
  • Duman, Anil

Abstract

The paper aims to identify the effect of non-standard employment on wages in the Turkish labour market across gender and decompose the gap to understand the role of endowments and returns in generating the earning differences. Our findings show that non-standard employment reduces wages for women at every quantile but no such results are attained for men. Besides, females with standard jobs in Turkey earn more than men, however, the opposite holds for females in non-standard positions. Also, a big part of the gender pay gap is attributable to returns, especially at the lower end of the distribution. Women in low-paid and atypical jobs face larger pay gaps, and the role of unexplained component suggests they are discriminated. The distinct impact of non-standard employment on men and women suggest that policies geared towards labour market flexibilisation should take gender perspective into account.

Suggested Citation

  • Duman, Anil, 2020. "Non-Standard Employment and Wage Differences across Gender: a quantile regression approach," GLO Discussion Paper Series 664, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:glodps:664
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/224256/1/GLO-DP-0664.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Elisabeth Cudeville & Leman Yonca Gurbuzer, 2010. "Gender Wage Discrimination in the Turkish Labor Market: Can Turkey Be Part of Europe?," Post-Print hal-00642062, HAL.
    2. Emmanuel Duguet & Pascale Petit, 2005. "Hiring discrimination in the French financial sector: an econometric analysis on field experiment data," Annals of Economics and Statistics, GENES, issue 78, pages 79-102.
    3. Elif Öznur ACAR & Aysıt TANSEL, 2016. "Defining and Measuring Informality: The Case of Turkish Labor Market," Sosyoekonomi Journal, Sosyoekonomi Society, issue 24(28).
    4. Fortin, Nicole & Lemieux, Thomas & Firpo, Sergio, 2011. "Decomposition Methods in Economics," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 1, pages 1-102, Elsevier.
    5. Alison L. Booth & Marco Francesconi & Jeff Frank, 2002. "Temporary Jobs: Stepping Stones Or Dead Ends?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(480), pages 189-213, June.
    6. Matteo PICCHIO, 2006. "Wage Differentials between Temporary and Permanent Workers in Italy," Working Papers 257, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
    7. Boll Christina & Wolf André & Rossen Anja, 2017. "The EU Gender Earnings Gap: Job Segregation and Working Time as Driving Factors," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, vol. 237(5), pages 407-452, October.
    8. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2017. "The Gender Wage Gap: Extent, Trends, and Explanations," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 55(3), pages 789-865, September.
    9. Kan, Elif Oznur & Tansel, Aysit, 2014. "Defining and Measuring Informality in the Turkish Labor Market," MPRA Paper 57739, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Janine Berg (ed.), 2015. "Labour Markets, Institutions and Inequality," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 16143.
    11. Barbara Petrongolo, 2004. "Gender Segregation in Employment Contracts," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 2(2-3), pages 331-345, 04/05.
    12. Andrea Garnero & Romina Giuliano & Benoit Mahy & François Rycx, 2016. "Productivity, wages and profits among Belgian firms: do fixed-term contracts matter?," International Journal of Manpower, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(2), pages 303-322, May.
    13. Moshe Buchinsky, 1998. "The dynamics of changes in the female wage distribution in the USA: a quantile regression approach," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(1), pages 1-30.
    14. Ipek Ilkkaracan & Raziye Selim, 2007. "The Gender Wage Gap in the Turkish Labor Market," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 21(3), pages 563-593, September.
    15. Inga Laß & Mark Wooden, 2019. "The Structure of the Wage Gap for Temporary Workers: Evidence from Australian Panel Data," British Journal of Industrial Relations, London School of Economics, vol. 57(3), pages 453-478, September.
    16. Anil Duman, 2019. "Wage Penalty for Temporary Workers in Turkey: Evidence From Quantile Regressions," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 57(4), pages 283-310, December.
    17. Grimshaw, Damian., 2011. "What do we know about low wage work and low wage workers? : Analysing the definitions, patterns, causes and consequences in international perspective," ILO Working Papers 994648583402676, International Labour Organization.
    18. repec:adr:anecst:y:2005:i:78:p:04 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Lawrence M. Kahn, 2016. "The Structure of the Permanent Job Wage Premium: Evidence from Europe," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(1), pages 149-178, January.
    20. Elisabeth Cudeville & Leman Yonca Gurbuzer, 2010. "Gender Wage Discrimination in the Turkish Labor Market: Can Turkey Be Part of Europe?," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 52(3), pages 429-463, September.
    21. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
    22. Bradley T. Heim, 2007. "The Incredible Shrinking Elasticities: Married Female Labor Supply, 1978–2002," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 42(4).
    23. Booth, Alison & Leigh, Andrew, 2010. "Do employers discriminate by gender? A field experiment in female-dominated occupations," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 107(2), pages 236-238, May.
    24. Elisabeth Cudeville & Leman Yonca Gurbuzer, 2010. "Gender Wage Discrimination in the Turkish Labor Market: Can Turkey Be Part of Europe?," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-00642062, HAL.
    25. Werner Eichhorst & Paul Marx (ed.), 2015. "Non-Standard Employment in Post-Industrial Labour Markets," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14770.
    26. Giulio Bosio, 2014. "The Implications of Temporary Jobs on the Distribution of Wages in Italy: An Unconditional IVQTE Approach," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 28(1), pages 64-86, March.
    27. Sylvia Fuller & Leah Vosko, 2008. "Temporary Employment and Social Inequality in Canada: Exploring Intersections of Gender, Race and Immigration Status," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 88(1), pages 31-50, August.
    28. Hasan Tekgüç & Değer Eryar & Dilek Cindoğlu, 2017. "Women’s Tertiary Education Masks the Gender Wage Gap in Turkey," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 360-386, September.
    29. repec:adr:anecst:y:2005:i:78 is not listed on IDEAS
    30. Kaya, Ezgi, 2019. "Gender wage gap across the quantiles:What is the role of firm segregation?," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2019/7, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    31. repec:feb:natura:0058 is not listed on IDEAS
    32. repec:ilo:ilowps:464858 is not listed on IDEAS
    33. Elisabeth Cudeville & Leman Yonca Gurbuzer, 2010. "Gender Wage Discrimination in the Turkish Labor Market: Can Turkey Be Part of Europe?," PSE-Ecole d'économie de Paris (Postprint) hal-00642062, HAL.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Altan Aldan, 2021. "Rising Female Labor Force Participation and Gender Wage Gap: Evidence From Turkey," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 155(3), pages 865-884, June.
    2. Albanese, Andrea & Gallo, Giovanni, 2020. "Buy flexible, pay more: The role of temporary contracts on wage inequality," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    3. Ebenezer Lemven Wirba & Fiennasah Annif’ Akem & Francis Menjo Baye, 2021. "Earnings gap between men and women in the informal labor market in Cameroon," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(3), pages 1466-1491, August.
    4. Arda Aktas & Gokce Uysal, 2011. "Explaining the Gender Wage Gap in Turkey Using the Wage Structure Survey," Working Papers 005, Bahcesehir University, Betam, revised Mar 2012.
    5. Koral Zeynep Aktaş & Mercan Murat Anıl, 2021. "Assessing the gender wage gap: Turkey in the years 2002–2019," Economics and Business Review, Sciendo, vol. 7(1), pages 90-112, March.
    6. Kaya Ezgi, 2021. "Gender wage gap across the distribution: What is the role of within- and between-firm effects?," IZA Journal of Development and Migration, Sciendo & Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 12(1), pages 1-49, January.
    7. Joanna Małgorzata Landmesser, 2019. "Decomposition Of Gender Wage Gap In Poland Using Counterfactual Distribution With Sample Selection," Statistics in Transition New Series, Polish Statistical Association, vol. 20(3), pages 171-186, September.
    8. Kaya, Ezgi, 2019. "Gender wage gap across the quantiles:What is the role of firm segregation?," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2019/7, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    9. Alessia Matano, 2022. "Spatial externalities in big cities and duality of the labour market," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 62(2), pages 471-498, March.
    10. Nord, Jeretta Horn & Lee, Tzong-Ru (Jiun-Shen) & Çetin, Fatih & Atay, Özlem & Paliszkiewicz, Joanna, 2016. "Examining the impact of social technologies on empowerment and economic development," International Journal of Information Management, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 1101-1110.
    11. Maurizio, Roxana., 2016. "Non-standard forms of employment in Latin America : prevalence, characteristics and impacts on wages," ILO Working Papers 994906973402676, International Labour Organization.
    12. Biewen, Martin & Fitzenberger, Bernd & Seckler, Matthias, 2020. "Counterfactual quantile decompositions with selection correction taking into account Huber/Melly (2015): An application to the German gender wage gap," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 67(C).
    13. Manuel Arellano & Stéphane Bonhomme, 2017. "Quantile Selection Models With an Application to Understanding Changes in Wage Inequality," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 85, pages 1-28, January.
    14. Michaela Fuchs & Anja Rossen & Antje Weyh & Gabriele Wydra‐Somaggio, 2021. "Where do women earn more than men? Explaining regional differences in the gender pay gap," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(5), pages 1065-1086, November.
    15. Gustavo Canavire-Bacarreza & Luis C. Carvajal-Osorio, 2020. "Two Stories of Wage Dynamics in Latin America: Different Policies, Different Outcomes," Journal of Labor Research, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 128-168, June.
    16. Töpfer, Marina, 2017. "Detailed RIF Decomposition with Selection - The Gender Pay Gap in Italy," VfS Annual Conference 2017 (Vienna): Alternative Structures for Money and Banking 168422, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    17. René Böheim & Marian Fink & Christine Zulehner, 2021. "About time: the narrowing gender wage gap in Austria," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 48(4), pages 803-843, November.
    18. Bill Cochrane & Gail Pacheco & Chao Li, 2017. "Temporary-Permanent Wage Gap: Does Type of Work and Location in Distribution Matter?," Australian Journal of Labour Economics (AJLE), Bankwest Curtin Economics Centre (BCEC), Curtin Business School, vol. 20(2), pages 125-147.
    19. Gustavo A. García, 2017. "Labor Informality: Choice or Sign of Segmentation? A Quantile Regression Approach at the Regional Level for Colombia," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 21(4), pages 985-1017, November.
    20. Inga Laß & Mark Wooden, 2020. "Temporary Employment Contracts and Household Income," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 147(1), pages 111-132, January.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Non-standard employment; Gender pay gap; Quantile regressions; Recentered Influence Function (RIF); Decomposition; Discrimination;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
    • J41 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Labor Contracts

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:zbw:glodps:664. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/glabode.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/glabode.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.