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Cape Verde and Mozambique as Development Successes in West and Southern Africa

  • Jorge Braga de Macedo
  • Luís Brites Pereira

This paper applies an interpretation of how globalization and governance (G&G) interact with convergence given Cape Verde and Mozambique's particular geographical and historical contexts. We hold that development success under globalization entails, necessarily but not exclusively, positive market perceptions regarding the orientation and predictability of policies as well as the accompanying institutional arrangements. As such, a positive G&G interaction with respect to a comparator group can usefully be defined as success notwithstanding the inexistence of a universally applicable development model. In practical terms, we first identify macro-level policy and institutional combinations underpinning successful trade diversification (an indicator of globalization) and income convergence (an indicator of governance) in the sub-regions of West and Southern Africa. We then assess to what extent these combinations apply to both countries using an empirical analysis. We find that trade openness drives convergence and export diversification in Western Africa (which is becoming more diversified) while convergence is instead driven by economic and political freedoms in Southern Africa (which is becoming more specialized). Our empirical analysis is complemented by a case-study narrative of Cape Verde and Mozambique's long-term development, which allows us to also identify the following common drivers: moving towards a market economy; opening up to regional and global trade; increasing economic and political freedom; pursing macroeconomic stability and financial reputation; ensuring policy continuity (especially in the industrial and trade sectors) and focusing on human development (especially education and poverty reduction). Moreover, both countries reveal convergence compared to their sub-regional peers when looking at average GDP per capita and indicators of financial reputation and good governance. While these findings are insufficient to conclude that convergence will be sustained, the positive interaction between trade and financial globalization, on the one hand, and good governance and democracy, on the other, may help explain the observed diversity of the Portuguese-speaking African community, which includes three other countries (Angola, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé e Príncipe).

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 16552.

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Date of creation: Nov 2010
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Publication status: Forthcoming: Cape Verde and Mozambique as Development Successes in West and Southern Africa , Jorge Braga de Macedo, Luís Brites Pereira. in African Successes: Sustainable Growth , Edwards, Johnson, and Weil. 2014
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:16552
Note: IFM
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  1. Federico Bonaglia & Kiichiro Fukasaku, 2003. "Export Diversification in Low-Income Countries: An International Challenge After Doha," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 209, OECD Publishing.
  2. Paul Collier & Jan Willem Gunning, 1999. "The IMF's role in structural adjustment," CSAE Working Paper Series 1999-18, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  3. Macedo, Jorge Braga de & Pereira, Luis Brites, 2006. "The Credibility of Cabo Verde’s Currency Peg," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp494, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
  4. Ricardo Hausmann & Dani Rodrik, 2002. "Economic Development as Self-Discovery," NBER Working Papers 8952, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Jorge Braga de Macedo & Luis Pereira & Afonso Reis, 2009. "Comparing Exchange Market Pressure across Five African Countries," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 20(5), pages 645-682, November.
  6. Paulo Bastos & Manuel Cabral, 2007. "The Dynamics of International Trade Patterns," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 143(3), pages 391-415, October.
  7. Cabral, Manuel Heredia Caldeira & Veiga, Paula, 2010. "Determinants Of Export Diversification And Sophistication In Sub-Saharan Africa," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp550, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
  8. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2009. "This Time Is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 8973.
  9. Aleksandra Parteka, 2010. "Employment and export specialisation along the development path: some robust evidence," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 145(4), pages 615-640, January.
  10. Reinhart, Carmen & Rogoff, Kenneth, 2009. "This Time It’s Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly-Preface," MPRA Paper 17451, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  11. Bonaglia, Federico & Braga de Macedo, Jorge & Bussolo, Maurizio, 2001. "How Globalization Improves Governance," CEPR Discussion Papers 2992, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Macedo, Jorge Braga de, 2010. "Global crisis and national policy responses: together alone?," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp546, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
  13. Ricardo Hausmann & Jason Hwang & Dani Rodrik, 2005. "What You Export Matters," NBER Working Papers 11905, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Hoeffler, Anke E, 2002. " The Augmented Solow Model and the African Growth Debate," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 64(2), pages 135-58, May.
  15. Persson, Torsten & Tabellini, Guido, 2006. "Democratic Capital: The Nexus of Political and Economic Change," CEPR Discussion Papers 5654, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  17. Miklos Koren & Silvana Tenreyro, 2005. "Volatility and development," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 3743, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  18. John M. Luiz, 2009. "Institutions and economic performance: Implications for African development," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(1), pages 58-75.
  19. Angel-Urdinola, Diego & Wodon, Quentin, 2007. "Assessing Absolute and Relative Poverty Trends with Limited Data in Cape Verde," MPRA Paper 11111, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  20. Adam Przeworski & Fernando Limongi, 1993. "Political Regimes and Economic Growth," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 7(3), pages 51-69, Summer.
  21. repec:rsp:wpaper:73 is not listed on IDEAS
  22. Dierk Herzer & Nowak-Lehnmann Felicitas, 2006. "What does export diversification do for growth? An econometric analysis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(15), pages 1825-1838.
  23. Fedderke, J. W. & de Kadt, R. H. J. & Luiz, J. M., 2001. "Indicators of political liberty, property rights and political instability in South Africa: 1935-97," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(1), pages 103-134, March.
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