IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/ces/ceswps/_9358.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Legacy of Covid-19 in Education

Author

Listed:
  • Katharina Werner
  • Ludger Woessmann

Abstract

If school closures and social-distancing experiences during the Covid-19 pandemic impeded children’s skill development, they may leave a lasting legacy in human capital. To understand the pandemic’s effects on school children, this paper combines a review of the emerging international literature with new evidence from German longitudinal time-use surveys. Based on the conceptual framework of an education production function, we cover evidence on child, parent, and school inputs and students’ cognitive and socio-emotional development. The German panel evidence shows that children’s learning time decreased severely during the first school closures, particularly for low-achieving students, and increased only slightly one year later. In a value-added model, learning time increases with daily online class instruction, but not with other school activities. The review shows substantial losses in cognitive skills on achievement tests, particularly for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. Socio-emotional wellbeing also declined in the short run. Structural models and reduced-form projections suggest that unless remediated, the school closures will persistently reduce skill development, lifetime income, and economic growth and increase inequality.

Suggested Citation

  • Katharina Werner & Ludger Woessmann, 2021. "The Legacy of Covid-19 in Education," CESifo Working Paper Series 9358, CESifo.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_9358
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.cesifo.org/DocDL/cesifo1_wp9358.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Gema Zamarro & María J. Prados, 2021. "Gender differences in couples’ division of childcare, work and mental health during COVID-19," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 11-40, March.
    2. Piopiunik, Marc & Schwerdt, Guido & Simon, Lisa & Woessmann, Ludger, 2020. "Skills, signals, and employability: An experimental investigation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 123(C).
    3. James Heckman & Flavio Cunha, 2007. "The Technology of Skill Formation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(2), pages 31-47, May.
    4. Raj Chetty & John N. Friedman & Nathaniel Hilger & Emmanuel Saez & Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach & Danny Yagan, 2011. "How Does Your Kindergarten Classroom Affect Your Earnings? Evidence from Project Star," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 126(4), pages 1593-1660.
    5. Thiemo Fetzer & Lukas Hensel & Johannes Hermle & Christopher Roth, 2021. "Coronavirus Perceptions and Economic Anxiety," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 103(5), pages 968–978-9, December.
    6. Baron, E. Jason & Goldstein, Ezra G. & Wallace, Cullen T., 2020. "Suffering in silence: How COVID-19 school closures inhibit the reporting of child maltreatment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 190(C).
    7. Michael Baker, 2013. "Industrial actions in schools: strikes and student achievement," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 46(3), pages 1014-1036, August.
    8. David Jaume & Alexander Willén, 2019. "The Long-Run Effects of Teacher Strikes: Evidence from Argentina," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 37(4), pages 1097-1139.
    9. Hanushek, Eric A. & Schwerdt, Guido & Wiederhold, Simon & Woessmann, Ludger, 2015. "Returns to skills around the world: Evidence from PIAAC," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 103-130.
    10. Chetty, Nadarajan & Friedman, John & Rockoff, Jonah E., 2014. "Measuring the Impacts of Teachers I: Evaluating Bias in Teacher Value-Added Estimates," Scholarly Articles 30749073, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    11. Mathias Huebener & Sevrin Waights & C. Katharina Spiess & Nico A. Siegel & Gert G. Wagner, 2021. "Parental well-being in times of Covid-19 in Germany," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 91-122, March.
    12. Mangiavacchi, Lucia & Piccoli, Luca & Pieroni, Luca, 2021. "Fathers matter: Intrahousehold responsibilities and children's wellbeing during the COVID-19 lockdown in Italy," Economics & Human Biology, Elsevier, vol. 42(C).
    13. Eric A. Hanushek & Ludger Woessmann, 2020. "The economic impacts of learning losses," OECD Education Working Papers 225, OECD Publishing.
    14. Blaskó, Zsuzsa & da Costa, Patricia & Schnepf, Sylke V., 2021. "Learning Loss and Educational Inequalities in Europe: Mapping the Potential Consequences of the COVID-19 Crisis," IZA Discussion Papers 14298, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    15. Christine Logel & Philip Oreopoulos & Uros Petronijevic, 2021. "Experiences and Coping Strategies of College Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic," NBER Working Papers 28803, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Flavio Cunha & James J. Heckman & Susanne M. Schennach, 2010. "Estimating the Technology of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skill Formation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 78(3), pages 883-931, May.
    17. Clara von Bismarck-Osten & Kirill Borusyak & Uta Schönberg, 2022. "The role of schools in transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus: quasi-experimental evidence from Germany," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 37(109), pages 87-130.
    18. Michèle Belot & Dinand Webbink, 2010. "Do Teacher Strikes Harm Educational Attainment of Students?," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 24(4), pages 391-406, December.
    19. Sven Resnjanskij & Jens Ruhose & Simon Wiederhold & Ludger Woessmann, 2021. "Can Mentoring Alleviate Family Disadvantage in Adolscence? A Field Experiment to Improve Labor-Market Prospects," CESifo Working Paper Series 8870, CESifo.
    20. Isphording, Ingo E. & Lipfert, Marc & Pestel, Nico, 2021. "Does re-opening schools contribute to the spread of SARS-CoV-2? Evidence from staggered summer breaks in Germany," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 198(C).
    21. James J. Heckman & Jora Stixrud & Sergio Urzua, 2006. "The Effects of Cognitive and Noncognitive Abilities on Labor Market Outcomes and Social Behavior," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(3), pages 411-482, July.
    22. Tani, Massimiliano & Cheng, Zhiming & Mendolia, Silvia & Paloyo, Alfredo R. & Savage, David, 2020. "Working Parents, Financial Insecurity, and Child-Care: Mental Health in the Time of COVID-19," IZA Discussion Papers 13588, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    23. Camille Terrier & Daniel L. Chen & Matthias Sutter, 2021. "COVID-19 within families amplifies the prosociality gap between adolescents of high and low socioeconomic status," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 118(46), pages 2110891118-, November.
    24. Fabian Kosse & Thomas Deckers & Pia Pinger & Hannah Schildberg-Hörisch & Armin Falk, 2020. "The Formation of Prosociality: Causal Evidence on the Role of Social Environment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 128(2), pages 434-467.
    25. Andre Nickow & Philip Oreopoulos & Vincent Quan, 2020. "The Impressive Effects of Tutoring on PreK-12 Learning: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Experimental Evidence," NBER Working Papers 27476, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    26. Claudia Hupkau & Ingo Isphording & Stephen Machin & Jenifer Ruiz-Valenzuela, 2020. "Labour market shocks during the Covid-19 pandemic: inequalities and child outcomes," CEP Covid-19 Analyses cepcovid-19-015, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    27. Daniela Del Boca & Noemi Oggero & Paola Profeta & Maria Cristina Rossi, 2021. "Did Covid-19 Affect the Division of Labor within the Household? Evidence from Two Waves of the Pandemic in Italy," CESifo Working Paper Series 9125, CESifo.
    28. Stefanie Stantcheva, 2022. "Inequalities in the times of a pandemic," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 37(109), pages 5-41.
    29. Carlana, Michela & La Ferrara, Eliana, 2021. "Apart but Connected: Online Tutoring and Student Outcomes during the COVID-19 Pandemic," CEPR Discussion Papers 15761, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    30. Herman G. van de Werfhorst, 2021. "Inequality in learning is a major concern after school closures," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 118(20), pages 2105243118-, May.
    31. David J. Deming, 2017. "The Growing Importance of Social Skills in the Labor Market," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 132(4), pages 1593-1640.
    32. Mendolia, Silvia & Suziedelyte, Agne & Zhu, Anna, 2022. "Have girls been left behind during the COVID-19 pandemic? Gender differences in pandemic effects on children’s mental wellbeing," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 214(C).
    33. James Heckman & Rodrigo Pinto & Peter Savelyev, 2013. "Understanding the Mechanisms through Which an Influential Early Childhood Program Boosted Adult Outcomes," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(6), pages 2052-2086, October.
    34. Cunha, Flavio & Heckman, James J. & Lochner, Lance, 2006. "Interpreting the Evidence on Life Cycle Skill Formation," Handbook of the Economics of Education, in: Erik Hanushek & F. Welch (ed.), Handbook of the Economics of Education, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 12, pages 697-812, Elsevier.
    35. Hanushek, Eric A. & Woessmann, Ludger, 2015. "The Knowledge Capital of Nations: Education and the Economics of Growth," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262029170, December.
    36. Schüller, Simone & Steinberg, Hannah S., 2022. "Parents under stress: Evaluating emergency childcare policies during the first COVID-19 lockdown in Germany," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(C).
    37. Raj Chetty & John N. Friedman & Jonah E. Rockoff, 2014. "Measuring the Impacts of Teachers II: Teacher Value-Added and Student Outcomes in Adulthood," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(9), pages 2633-2679, September.
    38. Elizabeth A. K. Jones & Amal K. Mitra & Azad R. Bhuiyan, 2021. "Impact of COVID-19 on Mental Health in Adolescents: A Systematic Review," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(5), pages 1-9, March.
    39. Per Engzell & Arun Frey & Mark D. Verhagen, 2021. "Learning loss due to school closures during the COVID-19 pandemic," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 118(17), pages 2022376118-, April.
    40. Daniel Goller & Stefan C. Wolter, 2021. "“Too shocked to search” The COVID-19 shutdowns’ impact on the search for apprenticeships," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics, Springer;Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics, vol. 157(1), pages 1-15, December.
    41. Grewenig, Elisabeth & Lergetporer, Philipp & Werner, Katharina & Woessmann, Ludger & Zierow, Larissa, 2021. "COVID-19 and educational inequality: How school closures affect low- and high-achieving students," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 140(C).
    42. Dan Goldhaber & Scott A. Imberman & Katharine O. Strunk & Bryant G. Hopkins & Nate Brown & Erica Harbatkin & Tara Kilbride, 2022. "To What Extent Does In‐Person Schooling Contribute To The Spread Of Covid‐19? Evidence From Michigan And Washington," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 41(1), pages 318-349, January.
    43. Ludger Wößmann & Vera Freundl & Elisabeth Grewenig & Philipp Lergetporer & Katharina Werner & Larissa Zierow, 2021. "Education on Lockdown Again: How Did Schoolchildren Spend Their Time during the Early 2021 School Closures?," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 74(05), pages 36-52, May.
    44. Lubhana Malik Mental, 2019. "Mental Health in Adolescents," Global Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities, Juniper Publishers Inc., vol. 6(3), pages 45-46, March.
    45. Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina & Marcén, Miriam & Morales, Marina & Sevilla, Almudena, 2020. "COVID-19 School Closures and Parental Labor Supply in the United States," IZA Discussion Papers 13827, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    46. Jaeger, David A. & Arellano-Bover, Jaime & Karbownik, Krzysztof & Martínez Matute, Marta & Nunley, John M. & Seals Jr., R. Alan & Almunia, Miguel & Alston, Mackenzie & Becker, Sascha O. & Beneito, Pil, 2021. "The Global COVID-19 Student Survey: First Wave Results," IZA Discussion Papers 14419, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    47. Salima Meherali & Neelam Punjani & Samantha Louie-Poon & Komal Abdul Rahim & Jai K. Das & Rehana A. Salam & Zohra S. Lassi, 2021. "Mental Health of Children and Adolescents Amidst COVID-19 and Past Pandemics: A Rapid Systematic Review," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(7), pages 1-16, March.
    48. Ludger Wößmann, 2020. "Follow-up Costs of Not Learning: What We Can Learn from Research on Coronavirus-Related School Closures," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 73(06), pages 38-44, June.
    49. Bacher-Hicks, Andrew & Goodman, Joshua & Mulhern, Christine, 2021. "Inequality in household adaptation to schooling shocks: Covid-induced online learning engagement in real time," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 193(C).
    50. Youngsoo Jang & Minchul Yum, 2020. "Aggregate and Intergenerational Implications of School Closures: A Quantitative Assessment," CRC TR 224 Discussion Paper Series crctr224_2020_234v1, University of Bonn and University of Mannheim, Germany.
    51. Ingo E. Isphording & Marc Lipfert & Nico Pestel, 2021. "Does Re-Opening Schools Contribute to the Spread of Sars-Cov-2? Evidence From Staggered Summer Breaks in Germany," CRC TR 224 Discussion Paper Series crctr224_2020_263, University of Bonn and University of Mannheim, Germany.
    52. Champeaux, Hugues & Mangiavacchi, Lucia & Marchetta, Francesca & Piccoli, Luca, 2020. "Learning at Home: Distance Learning Solutions and Child Development during the COVID-19 Lockdown," IZA Discussion Papers 13819, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    53. Franziska Hampf, 2019. "The Effect of Compulsory Schooling on Skills: Evidence from a Reform in Germany," ifo Working Paper Series 313, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich.
    54. Kamila Cygan-Rehm, 2018. "Is Additional Schooling Worthless? Revising Zero Returns to Compulsory Schooling in Germany," CESifo Working Paper Series 7191, CESifo.
    55. Raj Chetty & John N. Friedman & Jonah E. Rockoff, 2014. "Measuring the Impacts of Teachers I: Evaluating Bias in Teacher Value-Added Estimates," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(9), pages 2593-2632, September.
    56. Philipp Lergetporer & Katharina Werner & Ludger Woessmann, 2021. "Does Ignorance of Economic Returns and Costs Explain the Educational Aspiration Gap? Representative Evidence from Adults and Adolescents," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 88(351), pages 624-670, July.
    57. Alison Andrew & Sarah Cattan & Monica Costa Dias & Christine Farquharson & Lucy Kraftman & Sonya Krutikova & Angus Phimister & Almudena Sevilla, 2020. "Inequalities in Children's Experiences of Home Learning during the COVID‐19 Lockdown in England," Fiscal Studies, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 41(3), pages 653-683, September.
    58. Ludger Wößmann & Vera Freundl & Elisabeth Grewenig & Philipp Lergetporer & Katharina Werner & Larissa Zierow, 2020. "Bildung in der Coronakrise: Wie haben die Schulkinder die Zeit der Schulschließungen verbracht, und welche Bildungsmaßnahmen befürworten die Deutschen?," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 73(09), pages 01-17, August.
    59. Pietro Biroli & Steven Bosworth & Marina Della Giusta & Amalia Di Girolamo & Sylvia Jaworska & Jeremy Vollen, 2020. "Family Life in Lockdown," Working Papers 2020-051, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.
    60. Erik Lindqvist & Roine Vestman, 2011. "The Labor Market Returns to Cognitive and Noncognitive Ability: Evidence from the Swedish Enlistment," American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, American Economic Association, vol. 3(1), pages 101-128, January.
    61. Aucejo, Esteban M. & French, Jacob & Ugalde Araya, Maria Paola & Zafar, Basit, 2020. "The impact of COVID-19 on student experiences and expectations: Evidence from a survey," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 191(C).
    62. Danzer, Natalia & Huebener, Mathias & Pape, Astrid & Spieß, C. Katharina & Siegel, Nico A. & Wagner, Gert G., 2021. "Cracking under Pressure? Gender Role Attitudes toward Maternal Employment in Times of a Pandemic," IZA Discussion Papers 14471, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    63. Stefanie Stantcheva, 2022. "Inequalities in the Times of a Pandemic," NBER Working Papers 29657, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    64. Chetty, Nadarajan & Friedman, John & Rockoff, Jonah E., 2014. "Measuring the Impacts of Teachers II: Teacher Value-Added and Student Outcomes in Adulthood," Scholarly Articles 30749606, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    65. Thomas Dee & Elizabeth Huffaker & Cheryl Phillips & Eric Sagara, 2021. "The Revealed Preferences for School Reopening: Evidence from Public-School Disenrollment," NBER Working Papers 29156, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    66. Hanushek, Eric A, 1986. "The Economics of Schooling: Production and Efficiency in Public Schools," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 24(3), pages 1141-1177, September.
    67. Beblavy, Miroslav & Baiocco, Sara & Kilhoffer, Zachary & Akg��, Mehtap & Jacquot, Manon, 2019. "Index of Readiness for Digital Lifelong Learning - Changing How Europeans Upgrade Their Skills," CEPS Papers 25419, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    68. Enrica Croda & Shoshana Grossbard, 2021. "Women pay the price of COVID-19 more than men," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 1-9, March.
    69. Ludger Wößmann & Vera Freundl & Elisabeth Grewenig & Philipp Lergetporer & Katharina Werner & Larissa Zierow, 2020. "Education in the Coronavirus Crisis: How Did Schoolchildren Spend Their Time When Schools Were Closed, and What Educational Measures Do the Germans Advocate?," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 73(09), pages 25-39, September.
    70. João Pedro & Amer Hasan & Diana Goldemberg & Koen Geven & Syedah Aroob Iqbal, 2021. "Simulating the Potential Impacts of COVID-19 School Closures on Schooling and Learning Outcomes: A Set of Global Estimates [Tackling Inequity in Education during and after COVID-19]," The World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 36(1), pages 1-40.
    71. Cygan-Rehm, Kamila, 2018. "Is additional schooling worthless? Revising the zero returns to compulsory schooling in Germany," VfS Annual Conference 2018 (Freiburg, Breisgau): Digital Economy 181528, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    72. Jang, Youngsoo & Yum, Minchul, 2020. "Aggregate and Intergenerational Implications of School Closures: A Quantitative Assessment," MPRA Paper 107593, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Jo Blanden & Matthias Doepke & Jan Stuhler, 2022. "Education inequality," CEP Discussion Papers dp1849, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    2. Hupkau, Claudia & Ruiz-Valenzuela, Jenifer & Isphording, Ingo E. & Machin, Stephen, 2023. "Labour Market Shocks and Parental Investments during the Covid-19 Pandemic," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(C).
    3. David R. Agrawal & Aline Bütikofer, 2022. "Public finance in the era of the COVID-19 crisis," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 29(6), pages 1349-1372, December.
    4. Agostinelli, Francesco & Doepke, Matthias & Sorrenti, Giuseppe & Zilibotti, Fabrizio, 2022. "When the great equalizer shuts down: Schools, peers, and parents in pandemic times," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 206(C).
    5. Marc Diederichs & Reyn van Ewijk & Ingo E. Isphording & Nico Pestel, 2022. "Schools under mandatory testing can mitigate the spread of SARS-CoV-2," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 119(26), pages 2201724119-, June.
    6. Isphording, Ingo E. & Diederichs, Marc & van Ewijk, Reyn & Pestel, Nico, 2021. "Der eindämmende Effekt von Schulen auf die Verbreitung von SARS-CoV-2," IZA Standpunkte 101, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Andrew Bacher-Hicks & Joshua Goodman & Jennifer Greif Green & Melissa K. Holt, 2022. "The COVID-19 Pandemic Disrupted Both School Bullying and Cyberbullying," American Economic Review: Insights, American Economic Association, vol. 4(3), pages 353-370, September.
    8. Jessica Bracco & Leonardo Gasparini & Mariana Marchionni & Guido Neidhöfer & Matías Ciaschi, 2022. "The impact of COVID-19 on education in Latin America: long-run implications on poverty and inequality," Asociación Argentina de Economía Política: Working Papers 4544, Asociación Argentina de Economía Política.
    9. Kudlyak, Marianna & Anastasia, Giacomo & Boeri, Tito & Zholud, Oleksandr, 2022. "The Labor Market in Ukraine: Rebuild Better," CEPR Discussion Papers 17769, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    10. Giorgio Di Pietro, 2022. "Changes in household income during COVID-19: a longitudinal analysis," SN Business & Economics, Springer, vol. 2(10), pages 1-20, October.
    11. Sakaue, Katsuki & Wokadala, James & Ogawa, Keiichi, 2023. "Effect of parental engagement on children’s home-based continued learning during COVID-19–induced school closures: Evidence from Uganda," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 100(C).
    12. Belmonte, A & Pickard, H, 2022. "Safe at Last? LATE Effects of a Mass Immunization Campaign on Households’ Economic Insecurity," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 604, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
    13. Svaleryd, Helena & Vlachos, Jonas, 2022. "COVID-19 and School Closures," GLO Discussion Paper Series 1008, Global Labor Organization (GLO).
    14. Krisztián Széll & Borbála Károlyi & Anikó Fehérvári, 2022. "Learning Patterns at the Time of COVID-19-Induced School Closures," Social Sciences, MDPI, vol. 11(9), pages 1-17, August.
    15. INOUE Atsushi & TANAKA Ryuichi, 2023. "The Rank of Socioeconomic Status within a Class and the Incidence of School Bullying and School Absence," Discussion papers 23003, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Grewenig, Elisabeth & Lergetporer, Philipp & Werner, Katharina & Woessmann, Ludger & Zierow, Larissa, 2021. "COVID-19 and educational inequality: How school closures affect low- and high-achieving students," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 140(C).
    2. Ludger Wößmann, 2020. "Follow-up Costs of Not Learning: What We Can Learn from Research on Coronavirus-Related School Closures," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 73(06), pages 38-44, June.
    3. Jo Blanden & Matthias Doepke & Jan Stuhler, 2022. "Education inequality," CEP Discussion Papers dp1849, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    4. Shinsuke Asakawa & Fumio Ohtake, 2021. "Impact of Temporary School Closure Due to COVID-19 on the Academic Achievement of Elementary School Students," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 21-14, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics.
    5. Lisa Grazzini, 2016. "The Importance of the Quality of Education: Some Determinants and its Effects on Earning Returns and Economic Growth," ECONOMIA PUBBLICA, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2016(2), pages 43-82.
    6. Silke Anger & Malte Sandner & Alexander M. Danzer & Axel Plünnecke & Olaf Köller & Enzo Weber & Samuel Mühlemann & Harald Pfeifer & Bernhard Wittek, 2020. "School Closures, Lack of Apprenticeships, No Jobs: Generation without a Future?," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 73(09), pages 03-24, September.
    7. Ardington, Cally & Wills, Gabrielle & Kotze, Janeli, 2021. "COVID-19 learning losses: Early grade reading in South Africa," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 86(C).
    8. Thijssen, Maximiliaan W.P. & Rege, Mari & Solheim, Oddny J., 2022. "Teacher relationship skills and student learning," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 89(C).
    9. Nicola Fuchs-Schündeln & Dirk Krueger & André Kurmann & Etienne Lalé & Alexander Ludwig & Irina Popova, 2023. "The Fiscal and Welfare Effects of Policy Responses to the Covid-19 School Closures," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 71(1), pages 35-98, March.
    10. Nicola Fuchs-Schünde & Dirk Krueger & Alexander Ludwig & Irina Popova, 2022. "The Long-Term Distributional and Welfare Effects of Covid-19 School Closures," The Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 132(645), pages 1647-1683.
    11. Guido Neidhöfer & Nora Lustig & Mariano Tommasi, 2021. "Intergenerational transmission of lockdown consequences: prognosis of the longer-run persistence of COVID-19 in Latin America," The Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer;Society for the Study of Economic Inequality, vol. 19(3), pages 571-598, September.
    12. Gørtz, Mette & Johansen, Eva Rye & Simonsen, Marianne, 2018. "Academic achievement and the gender composition of preschool staff," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 241-258.
    13. Nicola Fuchs-Schündeln, 2022. "Covid-Induced School Closures in the US and Germany: Long-Term Distributional Effects," CESifo Working Paper Series 9698, CESifo.
    14. Andrew Agopsowicz & Chris Robinson & Ralph Stinebrickner & Todd Stinebrickner, 2020. "Careers and Mismatch for College Graduates: College and Noncollege Jobs," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 55(4), pages 1194-1221.
    15. Jose Maria Cabrera & Dinand Webbink, 2020. "Do Higher Salaries Yield Better Teachers and Better Student Outcomes?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 55(4), pages 1222-1257.
    16. Kamila Cygan-Rehm, 2022. "Lifetime Consequences of Lost Instructional Time in the Classroom: Evidence from Shortened School Years," CESifo Working Paper Series 9892, CESifo.
    17. Germán Reyes, 2023. "Cognitive Endurance, Talent Selection, and the Labor Market Returns to Human Capital," CRC TR 224 Discussion Paper Series crctr224_2023_490, University of Bonn and University of Mannheim, Germany.
    18. Germ'an Reyes, 2023. "Cognitive Endurance, Talent Selection, and the Labor Market Returns to Human Capital," Papers 2301.02575, arXiv.org.
    19. Rodríguez-Planas, Núria, 2022. "COVID-19, college academic performance, and the flexible grading policy: A longitudinal analysis," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 207(C).
    20. Attanasio, Orazio & Blundell, Richard & Conti, Gabriella & Mason, Giacomo, 2020. "Inequality in socio-emotional skills: A cross-cohort comparison," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 191(C).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Covid-19; school closures; education; schools; students; educational inequality;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • H52 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Education
    • J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_9358. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Klaus Wohlrabe (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/cesifde.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.