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Schulschließungen, fehlende Ausbildungsplätze, keine Jobs: Generation ohne Zukunft?

Author

Listed:
  • Silke Anger
  • Malte Sandner
  • Alexander M. Danzer
  • Axel Plünnecke
  • Olaf Köller
  • Enzo Weber
  • Samuel Mühlemann
  • Harald Pfeifer
  • Bernhard Wittek

Abstract

Silke Anger, Universität Bamberg und IAB, und Malte Sandner, IAB, zeigen, dass trotz vergleichbarer Abiturleistungen zu den Vorjahren langfristige Nachteile des Corona-Abiturs im späteren Berufsleben nicht ausgeschlossen werden können. Die Schließung der Schulen, das Aussetzen der Berufsberatung sowie ein reduziertes Ausbildungsplatzangebot erschwerten den Übergang in den Arbeitsmarkt. Zudem führe reduziertes Lernen zu individuellen und gesamtwirtschaftlichen Wohlstandsverlusten und fördere soziale Ungleichheit. Daten des internationalen PISA-Kompetenztests 2018 zeigen, dass Kinder mit Migrationshintergrund in Deutschland substanziell schwächere Leistungen erbringen als ihre Mitschüler ohne Migrationshintergrund. Damit die Corona-Pandemie nicht zu einer weiteren Verschärfung der Chancenungleichheit führt, sollten nach Ansicht von Alexander M. Danzer, KU Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, Kinder mit Migrationshintergrund speziell gefördert werden, beispielswiese durch eine zusätzliche Notbetreuung während der Schulschließung, um den Spracherwerb aufrechtzuerhalten und Leistungsrückstände aufzuholen. Die Schulschließungen aufgrund der Corona-Pandemie zeigen, dass digitales Lernen wichtiger denn je ist, um Bildung zu ermöglichen und einer zunehmenden Chancenungleichheit an Schulen entgegenzuwirken. Axel Plünnecke, Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft, Köln, zeigt auf, welche Schritte für eine erfolgreiche Digitalisierung des schulischen Bildungssystems notwendig sind. Um die Kompetenzen der Schülerinnen und Schüler durch die Digitalisierung zu erhöhen, seien unter anderem Lehrkräfte für den Einsatz digitaler Technologien im Unterricht und für das Lernen zu Hause zu qualifizieren. Deutschland hat Entwicklungen im Bereich digitalen schulischen Lernens weitgehend ignoriert, dies gilt auch für die Systeme der Lehrkräfteaus- und -fortbildung. Olaf Köller, Universität zu Kiel, skizziert eine Agenda, in welchen Schritten eine Digitalisierung erfolgen kann und welches Potenzial digitale Umwelten in Form von „Intelligenten Tutoriellen Systemen“ (IST) haben können. Enzo Weber, IAB, Nürnberg, befürchtet, dass sich die Arbeitslosigkeit verfestigt und bei den Berufseinsteigern eine Generation Corona entsteht, deren Erwerbsintegration auch längerfristig Schäden davonträgt. Die Möglichkeit zur Bewältigung der Coronakrise liege darin, eine „Neueinstellungsdynamik“ in Gang zu bringen und die stark beeinträchtigten Jobchancen möglichst schnell wieder zu verbessern. Temporäre Neueinstellungszuschüsse könnten dafür ein geeignetes Mittel sein. Samuel Mühlemann, LMU, Harald Pfeifer, BIBB, und Bernhard Wittek, LMU, sehen als Folge der Coronakrise auf den Ausbildungsstellenmarkt einen kaum vermeidbaren Rückgang der betrieblichen Ausbildungsplätze. Doch könne die Politik durch eine Flexibilisierung der Ausbildungsorganisation gegensteuern. Hans Peter Wollseifer, Zentralverband des Deutschen Handwerks, berichtet, dass die Zahl der neuen Ausbildungsverträge im Handwerk stark eingebrochen ist: zwischen Januar und Juli 2020 im Vorjahresvergleich um 13%. Immer vorausgesetzt, dass es nicht zu einem zweiten Lockdown komme, sei jedoch mit dem Wiederhochfahren der Wirtschaft eine Aufholjagd eingeleitet worden. So habe sich der Rückstand zum Vorjahr im Juni und Juli bereits reduziert.

Suggested Citation

  • Silke Anger & Malte Sandner & Alexander M. Danzer & Axel Plünnecke & Olaf Köller & Enzo Weber & Samuel Mühlemann & Harald Pfeifer & Bernhard Wittek, 2020. "Schulschließungen, fehlende Ausbildungsplätze, keine Jobs: Generation ohne Zukunft?," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 73(09), pages 03-24, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:ces:ifosdt:v:73:y:2020:i:09:p:03-24
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bildungseinrichtung; Bildungswesen; Ausbildungsmarkt; Epidemie;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education

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