IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/ecofin/v48y2019icp65-75.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Will macroprudential policy counteract monetary policy’s effects on financial stability?

Author

Listed:
  • Agur, Itai
  • Demertzis, Maria

Abstract

How does monetary policy impact upon macroprudential regulation? This paper models monetary policy’s transmission to bank risk, and its interaction with a regulator’s optimization problem. The regulator uses capital regulation to affect financial stability, while taking account of the impact on financial intermediation. A change in the monetary policy rate tilts the regulator’s entire trade-off. We show that the regulator allows interest rate changes to partly “pass through” to bank soundness by not neutralizing the bank risk channel of monetary policy. Thus, monetary policy affects financial stability, even in the presence of macroprudential regulation.

Suggested Citation

  • Agur, Itai & Demertzis, Maria, 2019. "Will macroprudential policy counteract monetary policy’s effects on financial stability?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 65-75.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:ecofin:v:48:y:2019:i:c:p:65-75
    DOI: 10.1016/j.najef.2019.01.012
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1062940818300676
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ioannidou, Vasso P., 2005. "Does monetary policy affect the central bank's role in bank supervision?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 58-85, January.
    2. Markus K. Brunnermeier & Yuliy Sannikov, 2014. "A Macroeconomic Model with a Financial Sector," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(2), pages 379-421, February.
    3. Allen, Franklin & Carletti, Elena & Gale, Douglas, 2014. "Money, financial stability and efficiency," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 149(C), pages 100-127.
    4. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren & Geoffrey M. B. Tootell, 1999. "Is Bank Supervision Central to Central Banking?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(2), pages 629-653.
    5. Zhiguo He & Arvind Krishnamurthy, 2013. "Intermediary Asset Pricing," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 103(2), pages 732-770, April.
    6. Acharya, Viral & Naqvi, Hassan, 2012. "The seeds of a crisis: A theory of bank liquidity and risk taking over the business cycle," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(2), pages 349-366.
    7. R. P. Agenor & K. Alper & L. Pereira da Silva, 2013. "Capital Regulation, Monetary Policy, and Financial Stability," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 9(3), pages 198-243, September.
    8. Xavier Freixas & Antoine Martin & David Skeie, 2011. "Bank Liquidity, Interbank Markets, and Monetary Policy," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(8), pages 2656-2692.
    9. Agur, Itai & Demertzis, Maria, 2013. "“Leaning against the wind” and the timing of monetary policy," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 179-194.
    10. Cesa-Bianchi, Ambrogio & Rebucci, Alessandro, 2017. "Does easing monetary policy increase financial instability?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 111-125.
    11. Andrea Ajello & Thomas Laubach & J. David Lopez-Salido & Taisuke Nakata, 2016. "Financial Stability and Optimal Interest-Rate Policy," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2016-067, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    12. Thakor, Anjan V, 1996. " Capital Requirements, Monetary Policy, and Aggregate Bank Lending: Theory and Empirical Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(1), pages 279-324, March.
    13. Disyatat, Piti, 2010. "Inflation targeting, asset prices, and financial imbalances: Contextualizing the debate," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 145-155, September.
    14. Borio, Claudio & Zhu, Haibin, 2012. "Capital regulation, risk-taking and monetary policy: A missing link in the transmission mechanism?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 236-251.
    15. Moritz Schularick & Alan M. Taylor, 2012. "Credit Booms Gone Bust: Monetary Policy, Leverage Cycles, and Financial Crises, 1870-2008," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(2), pages 1029-1061, April.
    16. Bruno, Valentina & Shin, Hyun Song, 2015. "Capital flows and the risk-taking channel of monetary policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 119-132.
    17. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 2005. "Unnatural Selection: Perverse Incentives and the Misallocation of Credit in Japan," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 95(4), pages 1144-1166, September.
    18. Carrillo Julio A. & Mendoza Enrique G. & Nuguer Victoria & Roldán-Peña Jessica, 2017. "Tight Money-Tight Credit: Coordination Failure in the Conduct of Monetary and Financial Policies," Working Papers 2017-10, Banco de México.
    19. Gregory deWalque & Olivier Pierrard & Abdelaziz Rouabah, 2010. "Financial (In)Stability, Supervision and Liquidity Injections: A Dynamic General Equilibrium Approach," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 120(549), pages 1234-1261, December.
    20. Angeloni, Ignazio & Faia, Ester & Lo Duca, Marco, 2015. "Monetary policy and risk taking," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 285-307.
    21. Cociuba, Simona E. & Shukayev, Malik & Ueberfeldt, Alexander, 2016. "Collateralized borrowing and risk taking at low interest rates," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 85(C), pages 62-83.
    22. Fabrice Collard & Harris Dellas & Behzad Diba & Olivier Loisel, 2017. "Optimal Monetary and Prudential Policies," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 9(1), pages 40-87, January.
    23. Frank Smets, 2014. "Financial Stability and Monetary Policy: How Closely Interlinked?," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 10(2), pages 263-300, June.
    24. Sophocles N. Brissimis & Manthos D. Delis, 2009. "Bank Heterogeneity and Monetary Policy Transmission," Working Papers 101, Bank of Greece.
    25. Tamim Bayoumi & Giovanni Dell'Ariccia & Karl F Habermeier & Tommaso Mancini Griffoli & Fabian Valencia, 2014. "Monetary Policy in the New Normal," IMF Staff Discussion Notes 14/3, International Monetary Fund.
    26. Buch, Claudia M. & Eickmeier, Sandra & Prieto, Esteban, 2014. "In search for yield? Survey-based evidence on bank risk taking," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 12-30.
    27. Yener Altunbas & Leonardo Gambacorta & David Marques-Ibanez, 2014. "Does Monetary Policy Affect Bank Risk?," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 10(1), pages 95-136, March.
    28. Jordi Galí & Luca Gambetti, 2015. "The Effects of Monetary Policy on Stock Market Bubbles: Some Evidence," American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 7(1), pages 233-257, January.
    29. Angela Maddalonia & Jose-Luis Peydro, 2013. "Monetary Policy, macroprudential Policy, and Banking Stability: Evidence from the Euro Area," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 9(1), pages 121-169, March.
    30. Emmanuel Farhi & Jean Tirole, 2012. "Collective Moral Hazard, Maturity Mismatch, and Systemic Bailouts," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(1), pages 60-93, February.
    31. Laséen, Stefan & Pescatori, Andrea & Turunen, Jarkko, 2017. "Systemic risk: A new trade-off for monetary policy?," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 70-85.
    32. Delis, Manthos D. & Kouretas, Georgios P., 2011. "Interest rates and bank risk-taking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 840-855, April.
    33. Adam Geršl & Petr Jakubik & Dorota Kowalczyk & Steven Ongena & José-Luis Peydró, 2015. "Monetary Conditions and Banks’ Behaviour in the Czech Republic," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 26(3), pages 407-445, July.
    34. Laureys, Lien & Meeks, Roland, 2018. "Monetary and macroprudential policies under rules and discretion," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 170(C), pages 104-108.
    35. Dubecq, S. & Mojon, B. & Ragot, X., 2009. "Fuzzy Capital Requirements, Risk-Shifting and the Risk Taking Channel of Monetary Policy," Working papers 254, Banque de France.
    36. Baselga-Pascual, Laura & Trujillo-Ponce, Antonio & Cardone-Riportella, Clara, 2015. "Factors influencing bank risk in Europe: Evidence from the financial crisis," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 138-166.
    37. Teodora Paligorova & João Santos, 2012. "When Is It Less Costly for Risky Firms to Borrow? Evidence from the Bank Risk-Taking Channel of Monetary Policy," Staff Working Papers 12-10, Bank of Canada.
    38. Gertler, Mark & Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro, 2010. "Financial Intermediation and Credit Policy in Business Cycle Analysis," Handbook of Monetary Economics, in: Benjamin M. Friedman & Michael Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 11, pages 547-599, Elsevier.
    39. Claudio Borio & Ilhyock Shim, 2007. "What can (macro-)prudential policy do to support monetary policy?," BIS Working Papers 242, Bank for International Settlements.
    40. Bernanke, Ben S. & Gertler, Mark & Gilchrist, Simon, 1999. "The financial accelerator in a quantitative business cycle framework," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 21, pages 1341-1393, Elsevier.
    41. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2001. "Liquidity Risk, Liquidity Creation, and Financial Fragility: A Theory of Banking," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 109(2), pages 287-327, April.
    42. Francis Vitek, 2017. "Policy, Risk and Spillover Analysis in the World Economy; A Panel Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Approach," IMF Working Papers 17/89, International Monetary Fund.
    43. Stephen Morris & Hyun Song Shin, 2016. "Risk Premium Shifts and Monetary Policy: A Coordination Approach," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series, in: Elías Albagli & Diego Saravia & Michael Woodford (ed.), Monetary Policy through Asset Markets: Lessons from Unconventional Measures and Implications for an Integrated World, edition 1, volume 24, chapter 5, pages 131-150, Central Bank of Chile.
    44. Valencia, Fabián, 2014. "Monetary policy, bank leverage, and financial stability," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 20-38.
    45. Tobias Adrian & Hyun Song Shin, 2009. "Money, Liquidity, and Monetary Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(2), pages 600-605, May.
    46. Loisel, O. & Pommeret, A. & Portier, T., 2012. "Monetary Policy and Herd Behavior: Leaning Against Bubbles," Working papers 412, Banque de France.
    47. Douglas W. Diamond & Raghuram G. Rajan, 2012. "Illiquid Banks, Financial Stability, and Interest Rate Policy," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 120(3), pages 552-591.
    48. de Mendonça, Helder Ferreira & Silva, Rafael Bernardo da, 2018. "Effect of banking and macroeconomic variables on systemic risk: An application of ΔCOVAR for an emerging economy," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 141-157.
    49. Itai Agur & Sunil Sharma, 2013. "Rules, Discretion, and Macro-Prudential Policy," IMF Working Papers 13/65, International Monetary Fund.
    50. Lars E.O. Svensson, 2016. "Inflation Targeting and "Leaning Against the Wind"," Israel Economic Review, Bank of Israel, vol. 13(1), pages 91-99.
    51. Stephen Cecchetti & Tommaso Mancini Griffoli & Machiko Narita, 2017. "Does Prolonged Monetary Policy Easing Increase Financial Vulnerability?," IMF Working Papers 17/65, International Monetary Fund.
    52. Drees, Burkhard & Eckwert, Bernhard & Várdy, Felix, 2013. "Cheap money and risk taking: Opacity versus fundamental risk," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 114-129.
    53. Vasso Ioannidou & Steven Ongena & José-Luis Peydró, 2015. "Monetary Policy, Risk-Taking, and Pricing: Evidence from a Quasi-Natural Experiment," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 19(1), pages 95-144.
    54. Giovanni Dell'Ariccia & Luc Laeven & Gustavo A. Suarez, 2017. "Bank Leverage and Monetary Policy's Risk-Taking Channel: Evidence from the United States," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 72(2), pages 613-654, April.
    55. Claudia M. Buch & Sandra Eickmeier & Esteban Prieto, 2012. "Macroeconomic factors and microeconomic bank risk," Chapters in SUERF Studies, SUERF - The European Money and Finance Forum.
    56. Bianca De Paoli & Matthias Paustian, 2017. "Coordinating Monetary and Macroprudential Policies," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 49(2-3), pages 319-349, March.
    57. DellʼAriccia, Giovanni & Laeven, Luc & Marquez, Robert, 2014. "Real interest rates, leverage, and bank risk-taking," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 149(C), pages 65-99.
    58. Giovanni Dell'Ariccia & Robert Marquez, 2006. "Lending Booms and Lending Standards," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(5), pages 2511-2546, October.
    59. Adrian, Tobias & Duarte, Fernando & Grinberg, Federico & Mancini-Griffoli, Tommaso, 2018. "Monetary Policy and Financial Conditions: A Cross-Country Study," CEPR Discussion Papers 12681, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    60. Gabriele Galati & Richhild Moessner, 2013. "Macroprudential Policy – A Literature Review," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(5), pages 846-878, December.
    61. Miller, Merton H., 1995. "Do the M & M propositions apply to banks?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 483-489, June.
    62. Tobias Adrian & Nellie Liang, 2018. "Monetary Policy, Financial Conditions, and Financial Stability," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 14(1), pages 73-131, January.
    63. Kannan Prakash & Rabanal Pau & Scott Alasdair M., 2012. "Monetary and Macroprudential Policy Rules in a Model with House Price Booms," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 12(1), pages 1-44, June.
    64. Victoria Nuguer & Jessica Roldan-Pena & Enrique Mendoza & Julio Carrillo, 2016. "When the Central Bank Meets the Financial Authority: Strategic Interactions and Institutional Design," 2016 Meeting Papers 1461, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    65. Aleksandra Zdzienicka & Sally Chen & Federico Diaz Kalan & Stefan Laseen & Katsiaryna Svirydzenka, 2015. "Effects of Monetary and Macroprudential Policies on Financial Conditions; Evidence from the United States," IMF Working Papers 15/288, International Monetary Fund.
    66. Angela Maddaloni & Jose-Luis Peydro, 2011. "Bank Risk-taking, Securitization, Supervision, and Low Interest Rates: Evidence from the Euro-area and the U.S. Lending Standards," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 24(6), pages 2121-2165.
    67. Delis, Manthos D & Hasan, Iftekhar & Mylonidis, Nikolaos, 2011. "The risk-taking channel of monetary policy in the USA: Evidence from micro-level data," MPRA Paper 34084, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    68. Keeley, Michael C, 1990. "Deposit Insurance, Risk, and Market Power in Banking," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1183-1200, December.
    69. Adrian, Tobias & Song Shin, Hyun, 2010. "Financial Intermediaries and Monetary Economics," Handbook of Monetary Economics, in: Benjamin M. Friedman & Michael Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Monetary Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 12, pages 601-650, Elsevier.
    70. Gabriel Jiménez & Steven Ongena & José‐Luis Peydró & Jesús Saurina, 2014. "Hazardous Times for Monetary Policy: What Do Twenty‐Three Million Bank Loans Say About the Effects of Monetary Policy on Credit Risk‐Taking?," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 82(2), pages 463-505, March.
    71. Altunbas, Yener & Gambacorta, Leonardo & Marques-Ibanez, David, 2010. "Bank risk and monetary policy," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 121-129, September.
    72. Hanson, Samuel G. & Stein, Jeremy C., 2015. "Monetary policy and long-term real rates," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(3), pages 429-448.
    73. Paolo Angelini & Stefano Neri & Fabio Panetta, 2014. "The Interaction between Capital Requirements and Monetary Policy," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 46(6), pages 1073-1112, September.
    74. Angeloni, Ignazio & Faia, Ester, 2013. "Capital regulation and monetary policy with fragile banks," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(3), pages 311-324.
    75. Goodhart, Charles & Schoenmaker, Dirk, 1995. "Should the Functions of Monetary Policy and Banking Supervision Be Separated?," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(4), pages 539-560, October.
    76. Matthieu Darracq Pariès & Christoffer Kok Sørensen & Diego Rodriguez-Palenzuela, 2011. "Macroeconomic Propagation under Different Regulatory Regimes: Evidence from an Estimated DSGE Model for the Euro Area," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 7(4), pages 49-113, December.
    77. Charles A. E. Goodhart & Carolina Osorio & Dimitrios P. Tsomocos, 2009. "Analysis of Monetary Policy and Financial Stability: A New Paradigm," CESifo Working Paper Series 2885, CESifo Group Munich.
    78. Tobias Adrian & Emanuel Moench & Hyun Song Shin, 2010. "Macro Risk Premium and Intermediary Balance Sheet Quantities," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 58(1), pages 179-207, August.
    79. Francis Vitek, 2013. "Policy Analysis and Forecasting in the World Economy; A Panel Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Approach," IMF Working Papers 13/253, International Monetary Fund.
    80. Charles A. E. Goodhart & Anil K Kashyap & Dimitrios P. Tsomocos & Alexandros P. Vardoulakis, 2013. "An Integrated Framework for Analyzing Multiple Financial Regulations," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 9(1), pages 109-144, January.
    81. Claudio Borio & William R. White, 2003. "Whither monetary and financial stability : the implications of evolving policy regimes," Proceedings - Economic Policy Symposium - Jackson Hole, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City, pages 131-211.
    82. Gertler, Mark & Karadi, Peter, 2011. "A model of unconventional monetary policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 17-34, January.
    83. Raghuram G. Rajan, 2006. "Has Finance Made the World Riskier?," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 12(4), pages 499-533, September.
    84. Van der Ghote, Alejandro, 2018. "Coordinating monetary and financial regulatory policies," Working Paper Series 2155, European Central Bank.
    85. Agur, Itai, 2012. "Credit rationing when banks are funding constrained," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 220-227.
    86. Adam Gersl & Petr Jakubík & Dorota Kowalczyk & Steven Ongena & José-Luis Peydró, 2015. "Monetary conditions and banks' behaviour in the Czech Republic," Economics Working Papers 1707, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Bolt, Wilko & Demertzis, Maria & Diks, Cees & Hommes, Cars & Leij, Marco van der, 2019. "Identifying booms and busts in house prices under heterogeneous expectations," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 234-259.
    2. Agur, Itai, 2019. "Monetary and macroprudential policy coordination among multiple equilibria," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 192-209.
    3. Ben-Haim, Yakov & Demertzis, Maria & Van den End, Jan Willem, 2018. "Evaluating monetary policy rules under fundamental uncertainty: An info-gap approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 55-70.
    4. Gabriele Galati & Richhild Moessner, 2018. "What Do We Know About the Effects of Macroprudential Policy?," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 85(340), pages 735-770, October.
    5. Pozo, Jorge, 2019. "Bank Risk-Taking in a Small Open Economy," Working Papers 2019-016, Banco Central de Reserva del Perú.
    6. Junankar, Pramod N. (Raja), 2019. "Monetary Policy, Growth and Employment in Developing Areas: A Review of the Literature," IZA Discussion Papers 12197, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Maria Demertzis & Guntram B. Wolff, 2016. "What impact does the ECB’s quantitative easing policy have on bank profitability?," Policy Contributions 17913, Bruegel.
    8. Becker, Chris & Ossandon Busch, Matias & Tonzer, Lena, 2017. "Macroprudential policy and intra-group dynamics: The effects of reserve requirements in Brazil," IWH Discussion Papers 21/2017, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
    9. Donato Masciandaro, 2018. "Central Banks And Macroprudential Policies: Economics And Politics," BAFFI CAREFIN Working Papers 1878, BAFFI CAREFIN, Centre for Applied Research on International Markets Banking Finance and Regulation, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Macroprudential; Leverage; Transmission; E43; E52; E61; G01; G21; G28;

    JEL classification:

    • E43 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E61 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination
    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:ecofin:v:48:y:2019:i:c:p:65-75. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/inca/620163 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.