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Citations for "How prudent are consumers?"

by Karen E. Dynan

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  1. B. Douglas Bernheim & Jonathan Skinner & Steven Weinberg, 2001. "What Accounts for the Variation in Retirement Wealth among U.S. Households?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 832-857, September.
  2. Donatella Baiardi & Matteo Manera & Mario Menegatti, 2014. "The Effects of Environmental Risk on Consumption: an Empirical Analysis on the Mediterranean Countries," Working Papers 2014.43, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  3. Gary V. Engelhardt & Anil Kumar, 2004. "Employer Matching and 401(k) Saving: Evidence from the Health and Retirement Study," Working Papers, Center for Retirement Research at Boston College 2004-18, Center for Retirement Research.
  4. Lilia Maliar & Serguei Maliar, 2003. "The Neoclassical Growth Model With Heterogenous Quasi-Geometric Consumers," Working Papers. Serie AD 2003-25, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
  5. Jonathan Parker & Bruce Preston, 2002. "Precautionary Saving and Consumption Fluctuations," NBER Working Papers 9196, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Johannes Geyer, 2011. "The Effect of Health and Employment Risks on Precautionary Savings," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1167, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
  7. Noussair, C.N. & Trautmann, S.T. & van de Kuilen, G., 2011. "Higher Order Risk Attitudes, Demographics, and Financial Decisions," Discussion Paper 2011-055, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  8. Makoto Nirei, 2006. "Quantifying Borrowing Constraints and Precautionary Savings," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 9(2), pages 353-363, April.
  9. Pierre-Olivier Gourinchas & Jonathan A. Parker, 2002. "Consumption Over the Life Cycle," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 70(1), pages 47-89, January.
  10. Paolo Lucchino & Dr Justin van de Ven, 2013. "Empirical Analysis of Household Savings Decisions in Context of Uncertainty: A cross-sectional approach," NIESR Discussion Papers 11169, National Institute of Economic and Social Research.
  11. Orazio Attanasio & Hamish Low, 2002. "Estimating Euler equations," IFS Working Papers W02/06, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  12. Robert G. Murphy, 1997. "Household Debt and Aggregate Consumption Expenditures," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 386, Boston College Department of Economics.
  13. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00585994 is not listed on IDEAS
  14. Skidmore, Mark, 2001. "Risk, natural disasters, and household savings in a life cycle model," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 15-34, January.
  15. Engelhardt, Gary V. & Kumar, Anil, 2009. "The elasticity of intertemporal substitution: New evidence from 401(k) participation," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 103(1), pages 15-17, April.
  16. Lester, Robert & Pries, Michael & Sims, Eric, 2014. "Volatility and welfare," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 17-36.
  17. M. Deidda, 2009. "Precautionary savings under liquidity constraints: evidence from Italy," Working Paper CRENoS 200918, Centre for North South Economic Research, University of Cagliari and Sassari, Sardinia.
  18. Lothar Essig, 2005. "Precautionary saving and old-age provisions: Do subjective saving motive measures work?," MEA discussion paper series 05084, Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA) at the Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy.
  19. Jonathan Gruber & Aaron Yelowitz, 1997. "Public Health Insurance and Private Savings," NBER Working Papers 6041, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  20. Lopez, Ramon E. & Yoon, Sang Won, 2013. "Sustainable Economic Growth: Structural Transformation with Consumption Flexibility," Working Papers 142561, University of Maryland, Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics.
  21. Hahm Joon-Ho, 1999. "Consumption Growth, Income Growth and Earings Uncertainty: Simple Cross-Country Evidence," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(2), pages 39-58.
  22. Yasuyuki Sawada & Jeong-Joon Lee, 2006. "The Degree of Precautionary Saving: A Reexamination," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-448, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  23. Shiba Suzuki, 2009. "Risks after disasters: a note on the effects of precautionary saving on equity premiums," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(1), pages 328-337.
  24. James Alm & Asmaa El-Ganainy, 2012. "Value-added Taxation and Consumption," Working Papers 1203, Tulane University, Department of Economics.
  25. Montalbano, Pierluigi, 2011. "Trade Openness and Developing Countries' Vulnerability: Concepts, Misconceptions, and Directions for Research," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 1489-1502, September.
  26. Christopher D. Carroll & Miles S. Kimball, 2006. "Precautionary Saving and Precautionary Wealth," Economics Working Paper Archive 530, The Johns Hopkins University,Department of Economics.
  27. Jeong-Joon Lee & Yasuyuki Sawada, 2005. "Precautionary Saving under LiquidityConstraints: Evidence from Rural Pakistan," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-377, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  28. Cary Deck & Harris Schlesinger, 2010. "Exploring Higher Order Risk Effects," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 77(4), pages 1403-1420.
  29. David Bowman & Deborah Minehart & Matthew Rabin, 1994. "Loss aversion in a consumption/savings model," International Finance Discussion Papers 492, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  30. Bruce D. Meyer & Wallace K.C. Mok, 2013. "Disability, Earnings, Income and Consumption," NBER Working Papers 18869, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  31. Edouard Challe & Chryssi Giannitsarou, 2012. "Stock Prices And Monetary Policy Shocks: A General Equilibrium Approach," Working Papers hal-00719956, HAL.
  32. Diaz, Antonia & Pijoan-Mas, Josep & Rios-Rull, Jose-Victor, 2003. "Precautionary savings and wealth distribution under habit formation preferences," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(6), pages 1257-1291, September.
  33. Chaigneau, Pierre, 2013. "Explaining the structure of CEO incentive pay with decreasing relative risk aversion," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 4-23.
  34. Anderberg, Dan & Andersson, Fredrik, 2003. "Investments in human capital, wage uncertainty, and public policy," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(7-8), pages 1521-1537, August.
  35. Koeniger, Winfried, 2001. "Labor and Financial Market Interactions: The Case of Labor Income Risk and Car Insurance in the UK 1969-95," IZA Discussion Papers 240, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  36. Ni, Shawn & Seol, Youn, 2014. "New evidence on excess sensitivity of household consumption," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 80-94.
  37. Christopher D Carroll, 1997. "Death to the Log-Linearized Consumption euler Equation! (And Very Poor Health to the Second-Order Approximation)," Economics Working Paper Archive 390, The Johns Hopkins University,Department of Economics.
  38. Clemente De Lucia & Mara Meacci, 2005. "Does job security matter for consumption? An analysis on Italian microdata," ISAE Working Papers 54, ISTAT - Italian National Institute of Statistics - (Rome, ITALY).
  39. Yasuyuki Sawada & Kazumitsu Nawata & Masako Ii & Jeong-Joon Lee, 2007. "Did the Credit Crunch in Japan Affect Household Welfare? An Augmented Euler Equation Approach Using Type 5 Tobit Model," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-498, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  40. Katrin Ullrich, 2000. "Die Konsumfunktion in makroökonometrischen Modellen," IWH Discussion Papers 117, Halle Institute for Economic Research.
  41. Sung Jin Kang & Yasuyuki Sawada, 2008. "Credit Crunch And Household Welfare, The Case Of The Korean Financial Crisis," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 59(4), pages 438-458.
  42. Andrea Repetto, 2001. "Incentivos al Ahorro Personal: Lecciones de la Economía del Comportamiento," Documentos de Trabajo 103, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
  43. Alexander M. Gelber, 2011. "How Do 401(k)s Affect Saving? Evidence from Changes in 401(k) Eligibility," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 3(4), pages 103-22, November.
  44. repec:att:wimass:9724 is not listed on IDEAS
  45. Aaberge, Rolf & Liu, Kai & Zhu, Yu, 2014. "Political Uncertainty and Household Savings," IZA Discussion Papers 8692, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  46. Guiso, Luigi & Jappelli, Tullio & Pistaferri, Luigi, 1998. "What Determines Earnings and Employment Risk," CEPR Discussion Papers 2043, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  47. Robert F. Martin Joseph W. Gruber, 2004. "Does Housing Wealth Make Us Less Equal? The Role of Durable Goods in the Distribution of Wealth," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 15, Econometric Society.
  48. Godlonton, Susan, 2014. "Employment risk and job-seeker performance:," IFPRI discussion papers 1332, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  49. Becker, Torbjörn, 1995. "Risky Taxes, Budget Balance Preserving Spreads and Precautionary Savings," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 73, Stockholm School of Economics.
  50. Joseph G. Eisenhauer, 2003. "Approximation bias in estimating risk aversion," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 4(38), pages 1-10.
  51. Abdul Jalil, Ahmad Zafarullah & Abdul Karim, Noor Al-Huda, 2008. "Constraining the spending behavior of subnational governments through borrowing limitation: The case of Malaysia," MPRA Paper 25234, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  52. Scott Fulford, 2014. "The surprisingly low importance of income uncertainty for precaution," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 862, Boston College Department of Economics.
  53. Essig, Lothar, 2004. "Precautionary saving and old-age provisions: Do subjective saving motives measures work?," Sonderforschungsbereich 504 Publications 05-22, Sonderforschungsbereich 504, Universität Mannheim;Sonderforschungsbereich 504, University of Mannheim.
  54. Mayrhofer, Thomas & Krieger, Miriam, 2012. "Patient Preferences and Treatment Thresholds under Diagnostic Risk: An Economic Laboratory Experiment," Annual Conference 2012 (Goettingen): New Approaches and Challenges for the Labor Market of the 21st Century 62033, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  55. Jappelli, Tullio & Pistaferri, Luigi, 2000. "Using subjective income expectations to test for excess sensitivity of consumption to predicted income growth," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 337-358, February.
  56. Wilson, Bradley K., 1998. "The Aggregate Existence of Precautionary Saving: Time-Series Evidence from Expenditures on Nondurable and Durable Goods," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 309-323, April.
  57. repec:nsr:niesrd:407 is not listed on IDEAS
  58. Bessho, Shun-ichiro & Tobita, Eiko, 2008. "Unemployment risk and buffer-stock saving: An empirical investigation in Japan," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 303-325, August.
  59. Jeff Dominitz & Charles F. Manski, 1994. "Using Expectations Data to Study Subjective Income Expectations," Econometrics 9411003, EconWPA.
  60. Bent E. Sorensen & Maria J. Luengo-Prado, 2004. "The Buffer Stock Model and the Aggregate Propensity to Consume," Econometric Society 2004 North American Summer Meetings 457, Econometric Society.
  61. Masahiro Hori & Satoshi Shimizutani, 2006. "Did Japanese consumers become more prudent during 1998-1999? Evidence from household-level data," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(2), pages 197-209.
  62. Christopher D. Carroll & Karen E. Dynan & Spencer D. Krane, 1999. "Unemployment risk and precautionary wealth: evidence from households' balance sheets," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1999-15, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  63. Cristina Barceló, 2008. "The impact of alternative imputation methods on the measurement of income and wealth: Evidence from the Spanish survey of household finances," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 0829, Banco de Espa�a.
  64. Martin Browning & Sule Alan, 2006. "Estimating Intertemporal Allocation Parameters using Simulated Expectation Errors," Economics Series Working Papers 284, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  65. Filer, Larry & Fisher, Jonathan D., 2007. "Do liquidity constraints generate excess sensitivity in consumption? New evidence from a sample of post-bankruptcy households," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 790-805, December.
  66. Christopher D. Carroll & Andrew A. Samwick, 1995. "The Nature of Precautionary Wealth," NBER Working Papers 5193, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  67. Wako Watanabe, 2005. "Income Uncertainty and Self-Reported Precautionary Wealth: Evidence from the Japanese Micro Data," ISER Discussion Paper 0636, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
  68. Andrew Benito, 2002. "Does Job Insecurity Affect Household Consumption?," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 0225, Banco de Espa�a.
  69. Sydney Ludvigson & Christina H. Paxson, 1997. "Approximation bias in linearized Euler equations," Research Paper 9712, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  70. Joseph Eisenhauer & Luigi Ventura, 2003. "Survey measures of risk aversion and prudence," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(13), pages 1477-1484.
  71. repec:nsr:niesrd:406 is not listed on IDEAS
  72. Joseph Gruber & Robert Martin, 2003. "Precautionary savings and the wealth distribution with illiquid durables," International Finance Discussion Papers 773, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  73. Engen, Eric & Gale, William & Uccello, Cori, 1999. "The Adequacy of Household Saving," MPRA Paper 56442, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  74. David J. Mckenzie, 2002. "The Prudence of Mexican Consumers," Economía Mexicana NUEVA ÉPOCA, , vol. 0(2), pages 393-407, July-Dece.
  75. Jeong-Joon Lee & Yasuyuki Sawada, 2005. "Precautionary Saving under Liquidity Constraints: Evidence from Rural Pakistan (Published in "Journal of Development Economics". )," CARF F-Series CARF-F-051, Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo.
  76. Yulei Luo & William T. Smith & Heng-fu Zou, 2009. "The Spirit of Capitalism and Excess Smoothness," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 10(2), pages 281-301, November.
  77. Claudio Soto, 2004. "Unemployment and Consumption in Chile," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 258, Central Bank of Chile.
  78. Hurst, Erik & Kennickell, Arthur & Lusardi, Annamaria & Torralba, Francisco, 2006. "Precautionary savings and the importance of business owners," CFS Working Paper Series 2006/16, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
  79. Abdul Jalil, Ahmad Zafarullah, 2009. "The importance of precautionary saving motive among Indonesian households," MPRA Paper 25189, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  80. Bergman, Michael, 2000. "The 'Expansionary Fiscal Contraction Hypothesis' and Uncertainty About the Permanence of Fiscal Consolidations," Working Papers 2000:2, Lund University, Department of Economics.
  81. Terada-Hagiwara, Akiko, 2009. "Explaining Filipino Households’ Declining Saving Rate," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 178, Asian Development Bank.
  82. Chou, Shin-Yi & Liu, Jin-Tan & Hammitt, James K., 2003. "National Health Insurance and precautionary saving: evidence from Taiwan," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(9-10), pages 1873-1894, September.
  83. Leif Danziger, 2009. "Noncompliance and the Effects of the Minimum Wage on Hours and Welfare in Competitive Labor Markets," CESifo Working Paper Series 2786, CESifo Group Munich.
  84. Jonathan A. Parker, 1999. "The Reaction of Household Consumption to Predictable Changes in Social Security Taxes," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(4), pages 959-973, September.
  85. Lucia Dunn & Tufan Ekici, 2006. "Credit Card Debt and Consumption: Evidence from Household-Level Data," Working Papers 06-01, Ohio State University, Department of Economics.
  86. Dedah, Cheikhna O. & Mishra, Ashok K., 2009. "Permanent Income and the Importance of Precautionary Savings: An Instrumental Variable Approach," 2009 Annual Meeting, July 26-28, 2009, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 49522, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  87. Wataru Kureishi & Midori Wakabayashi, 2013. "What motivates single women to save? the case of Japan," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 11(4), pages 681-704, December.
  88. Shin-Yi Chou & Jin-Tan Liu & James K. Hammitt, 2002. "Health Insurance and Households' Precautionary Behaviors - An Unusual Natural Experiment," NBER Working Papers 9394, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  89. Sule Alan, 2004. "Precautionary Wealth and Portfolio Allocation: Evidence from Canadian Microdata," Social and Economic Dimensions of an Aging Population Research Papers 117, McMaster University.
  90. Pasquale Lucio Scandizzo, 2014. "The social rate of discount, climate change and real options," CEIS Research Paper 309, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 18 Feb 2014.
  91. Roberto Bande & Dolores Riveiro, 2013. "Private Saving Rates and Macroeconomic Uncertainty: Evidence from Spanish Regional Data," The Economic and Social Review, Economic and Social Studies, vol. 44(3), pages 323-349.
  92. Engen, Eric M. & Gruber, Jonathan, 2001. "Unemployment insurance and precautionary saving," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(3), pages 545-579, June.
  93. Marcus Klemm, 2012. "Job Security Perceptions and the Saving Behavior of German Households," Ruhr Economic Papers 0380, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
  94. McKenzie, David J., 2006. "Precautionary saving and consumption growth in Taiwan," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 84-101.
  95. Kim, Seewon, 2013. "Prudent consumers: New evidence from the Consumer Expenditure Survey," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 77-85.
  96. Jonathan Gruber, 2006. "A Tax-Based Estimate of the Elasticity of Intertemporal Substitution," NBER Working Papers 11945, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  97. Claudio Soto G., 2004. "Desempleo y Consumo en Chile," Journal Economía Chilena (The Chilean Economy), Central Bank of Chile, vol. 7(1), pages 31-50, April.
  98. Sebastian Ebert & Daniel Wiesen, 2014. "Joint measurement of risk aversion, prudence, and temperance," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 48(3), pages 231-252, June.
  99. Guariglia, Alessandra & Rossi, Mariacristina, 2004. "Private medical insurance and saving: evidence from the British Household Panel Survey," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(4), pages 761-783, July.
  100. B. Douglas Bernheim, 1999. "Taxation and Saving," Working Papers 99007, Stanford University, Department of Economics.
  101. Mario Menegatti, 2007. "Consumption and uncertainty: a panel analysis in Italian Regions," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(1), pages 39-42.
  102. Julie Zissimopoulos & Benjamin Karney & Amy Rauer, 2008. "Marital Histories and Economic Well-Being," Working Papers 645, RAND Corporation Publications Department.
  103. Enrichetta Ravina, 2005. "Keeping Up with the Joneses: Evidence from Micro Data," 2005 Meeting Papers 557, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  104. Laibson, David, 1998. "Life-cycle consumption and hyperbolic discount functions," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(3-5), pages 861-871, May.
  105. Yasuyuki Sawada & Sung Jin Kang, 2004. "Credit Crunches and Household Welfare: The Case of Korean Financial Crisis," Econometric Society 2004 Far Eastern Meetings 751, Econometric Society.
  106. Bai, Chong-En & Wu, Binzhen, 2014. "Health insurance and consumption: Evidence from China’s New Cooperative Medical Scheme," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 450-469.
  107. Luigi Ventura & Joseph Eisenhauer, 2006. "Prudence and precautionary saving," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 155-168, June.
  108. Valérie Mignon & Gilles Dufrénot, 2002. "La cointégration non linéaire : une note méthodologique," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 155(4), pages 117-137.
  109. Arie Kapteyn & Constantijn Panis, 2003. "The Size and Composition of Wealth Holdings in the United States, Italy, and the Netherlands," NBER Working Papers 10182, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  110. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:4:y:2003:i:38:p:1-10 is not listed on IDEAS
  111. Alessandro Federici & Pierluigi Montalbano, 2012. "Macroeconomic volatility, consumption behaviour and welfare: A cross-country analysis," Working Paper Series 3612, Department of Economics, University of Sussex.
  112. Irvine, Ian & Wang, Susheng, 2001. "Saving behavior and wealth accumulation in a pure lifecycle model with income uncertainty," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(2), pages 233-258, February.
  113. Kolsrud, Jonas, 2013. "Precaution and Risk Aversion: Decomposing the Effect of Unemployment Benefits on Saving," Working Paper Series 2013:14, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
  114. Luc Arrondel & Hector Calvo Pardo, 2008. "Les Français sont-ils prudents ? Patrimoine et risque sur les revenus des ménages," PSE Working Papers halshs-00585994, HAL.
  115. Shawn Ni, 2007. "Excess Sensitivity in Consumption without Liquidity Constraint: Evidence from Monthly Household Panel Data," Working Papers 0714, Department of Economics, University of Missouri.
  116. Karen K. Lewis, 1997. "Are Countries with Official International Restrictions "Liquidity Constrained?"," NBER Working Papers 5991, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  117. Atreya Chakraborty & Mark Kazarosian, 1999. "Portfolio Allocation of Precautionary Assets: Panel Evidence for the United States," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 432, Boston College Department of Economics.
  118. Shin-Yi Chou & Jin-Tan Liu & James Hammitt, 2006. "Households’ precautionary behaviors—the effects of the introduction of National Health Insurance in Taiwan," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 4(4), pages 395-421, December.
  119. Casey B. Mulligan, 1997. "Pecuniary Incentives to Work in the U.S. during World War II," NBER Working Papers 6326, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  120. Sebastian Barnes & Garry Young, 2003. "The rise in US household debt: assessing its causes and sustainability," Bank of England working papers 206, Bank of England.
  121. Murata, Keiko, 2003. "Precautionary Savings and Income Uncertainty: Evidence from Japanese Micro Data," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 21(3), pages 21-52, October.
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