IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Allocation of Human Capital and Innovation at the Frontier: Firm-Level Evidence on Germany and the Netherlands

  • Bartelsman, Eric

    ()

    (VU University Amsterdam)

  • Dobbelaere, Sabien

    ()

    (VU University Amsterdam)

  • Peters, Bettina

    ()

    (ZEW Mannheim)

This paper examines how productivity effects of human capital and innovation vary at different points of the conditional productivity distribution. Our analysis draws upon two large unbalanced panels of 6,634 enterprises in Germany and 14,586 enterprises in the Netherlands over the period 2000-2008, considering 5 manufacturing and services industries that differ in the level of technological intensity. Industries in the Netherlands are characterized by a larger average proportion of high-skilled employees and industries in Germany by a more unequal distribution of human capital intensity. Except for low-technology manufacturing, average innovation performance is higher in all industries in Germany and the innovation performance distributions are more dispersed in the Netherlands. In both countries, we observe non-linearities in the productivity effects of investing in product innovation in the majority of industries. Frontier firms enjoy the highest returns to product innovation whereas the most negative returns to process innovation are observed in the best-performing enterprises of most industries. In both countries, we find that the returns to human capital increase with proximity to the technological frontier in industries with a low level of technological intensity. Strikingly, a negative complementarity effect between human capital and proximity to the technological frontier is observed in knowledge-intensive services, which is most pronounced for the Netherlands. Suggestive evidence for the latter points to a winner-takes-all interpretation of this finding.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://ftp.iza.org/dp7540.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 7540.

as
in new window

Length: 64 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2013
Date of revision:
Publication status: forthcoming in: Industrial and Corporate Change
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7540
Contact details of provider: Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org

Order Information: Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Email:


References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. O'Mahony, Mary & Robinson, Catherine & Vecchi, Michela, 2008. "The impact of ICT on the demand for skilled labour: A cross-country comparison," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(6), pages 1435-1450, December.
  2. Judith K. Hellerstein & David Neumark & Kenneth R. Troske, 1996. "Wages, Productivity, and Worker Characteristics: Evidence from Plant-Level Production Functions and Wage Equations," NBER Working Papers 5626, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Philippe Aghion & Nick Bloom & Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & Peter Howitt, 2005. "Competition and Innovation: An Inverted-U Relationship," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 120(2), pages 701-728, May.
  4. Henrekson, Magnus & Johansson, Dan, 2008. "Gazelles as Job Creators – A Survey and Interpretation of the Evidence," Working Paper Series 733, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  5. Bourlès, R. & Cette, G. & Lopez, J. & Mairesse, J. & Nicoletti, G., 2010. "Do product market regulations in upstream sectors curb productivity growth? Panel data evidence for OECD countries," Working papers 283, Banque de France.
  6. Galindo-Rueda, Fernando & Haskel, Jonathan, 2005. "Skills, Workforce Characteristics and Firm-Level Productivity: Evidence from the Matched ABI/Employer Skills Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 1542, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Schultz, T.P. & Mwabu, G., 1995. "Education Returns Across Quantiles of the Wage Function: Alternative Explanation for Returns to Education by Race in South Africa," Papers 744, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
  8. Lance Lochner & Youngki Shin, 2014. "Understanding Earnings Dynamics: Identifying and Estimating the Changing Roles of Unobserved Ability, Permanent and Transitory Shocks," NBER Working Papers 20068, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Mark Doms & Eric J. Bartelsman, 2000. "Understanding Productivity: Lessons from Longitudinal Microdata," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 38(3), pages 569-594, September.
  10. Eric Hanushek & Ludger Woessmann, 2009. "Do Better Schools Lead to More Growth? Cognitive Skills, Economic Outcomes, and Causation," Discussion Papers 08-015, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  11. Jeremy T. Fox & Valérie Smeets, 2011. "Does Input Quality Drive Measured Differences in Firm Productivity?," NBER Working Papers 16853, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  12. Jose A. F. Machado & Jose Mata, 2000. "Box-Cox quantile regression and the distribution of firm sizes," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(3), pages 253-274.
  13. Rachel Griffith & Stephen Redding & Helen Simpson, 2003. "Productivity Convergence and Foreign Ownership at the Establishment Level," CEP Discussion Papers dp0573, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  14. H. Bulut & G. Moschini, 2009. "US universities' net returns from patenting and licensing: a quantile regression analysis," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(2), pages 123-137.
  15. Jakob Madsen & Rabiul Islam & James Ang, 2009. "Catching up to the Technology Frontier: The Dichotomy Between Innovation and Imitation," CAMA Working Papers 2009-26, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  16. Federico Cingano & Marco Leonardi & Julián Messina & Giovanni Pica, 2013. "Employment Protection Legislation, Capital Investment and Access to Credit: Evidence from Italy," Development Working Papers 354, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano.
  17. Daron Acemoglu & Philippe Aghion & Fabrizio Zilibotti, 2002. "Vertical Integration and Distance to Frontier," NBER Working Papers 9191, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  18. Barbara Sianesi & John Van Reenen, 2003. "The Returns to Education: Macroeconomics," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(2), pages 157-200, 04.
  19. Haskel, Jonathan & Hawkes, Denise & Pereira, Sonia, 2005. "Skills, human capital and the plant productivity gap: UK evidence from matched plant, worker and workforce data," CEPR Discussion Papers 5334, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  20. Omar Arias & Kevin F. Hallock & Walter Sosa Escudero, 1999. "Individual Heterogeneity in the Returns to Schooling: Instrumental Variables Quantile Regression using Twins Data," Department of Economics, Working Papers 016, Departamento de Economía, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
  21. V. Chandra & Osorio-Rodarte , I. & Braga, C. A. Primo, 2009. "Korea and the BICs (Brazil, India and China) : catching up experiences," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5101, The World Bank.
  22. Sarra Ben Yahmed & Sean Dougherty, 2012. "Import Competition, Domestic Regulation and Firm-Level Productivity Growth in the OECD," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 980, OECD Publishing.
  23. Richard Kneller & Philip Andrew Stevens, 2006. "Frontier Technology and Absorptive Capacity: Evidence from OECD Manufacturing Industries," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 68(1), pages 1-21, 02.
  24. Amable, Bruno & Demmou, Lilas & Ledezma, Ivan, 2010. "Product market regulation, innovation, and distance to frontier," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/3716, Paris Dauphine University.
  25. Johannes Van Biesebroeck, 2007. "Wages Equal Productivity. Fact or Fiction?," Working Papers tecipa-294, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  26. Klara Sabirianova & Jan Svejnar & Katherine Terrell, 2005. "Foreign Investment, Corporate Ownership, and Development:Are Firms in Emerging Markets Catching Up to the World Standard?," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series wp734, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
  27. James J. Heckman, 2001. "Micro Data, Heterogeneity, and the Evaluation of Public Policy: Nobel Lecture," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 109(4), pages 673-748, August.
  28. Ivan A. Canay, 2011. "A simple approach to quantile regression for panel data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 14(3), pages 368-386, October.
  29. Nicoletti, Giuseppe & Scarpetta, Stefano, 2003. "Regulation, productivity, and growth : OECD evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2944, The World Bank.
  30. Ohinata, Asako & van Ours, Jan C., 2013. "Spillover Effects of Studying with Immigrant Students: A Quantile Regression Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 7720, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  31. Arnaud Chevalier & Colm Harmon & Ian Walker & Yu Zhu, 2003. "Does education raise productivity, or just reflect it?," Working Papers 200304, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
  32. Daniel Cohen & Marcelo Soto, 2001. "Growth and Human Capital: Good Data, Good Results," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 179, OECD Publishing.
  33. Angel de la Fuente & Rafael Doménech, 2006. "Human Capital in Growth Regressions: How Much Difference Does Data Quality Make?," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 4(1), pages 1-36, 03.
  34. Atkinson, Anthony B & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1969. "A New View of Technological Change," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 79(315), pages 573-78, September.
  35. Rachel Griffith & Stephen Redding & John Van Reenen, 2004. "Mapping the Two Faces of R&D: Productivity Growth in a Panel of OECD Industries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(4), pages 883-895, November.
  36. Jan Ours & Lenny Stoeldraijer, 2011. "Age, Wage and Productivity in Dutch Manufacturing," De Economist, Springer, vol. 159(2), pages 113-137, June.
  37. José A. F. Machado & José Mata, 2001. "Earning functions in Portugal 1982-1994: Evidence from quantile regressions," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 115-134.
  38. Daron Acemoglu & Philippe Aghion & Fabrizio Zilibotti, 2002. "Distance to Frontier, Selection, and Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 9066, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  39. Dennis D. Kimko & Eric A. Hanushek, 2000. "Schooling, Labor-Force Quality, and the Growth of Nations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(5), pages 1184-1208, December.
  40. Martins, Pedro S. & Pereira, Pedro T., 2004. "Does education reduce wage inequality? Quantile regression evidence from 16 countries," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 355-371, June.
  41. Koenker, Roger, 2004. "Quantile regression for longitudinal data," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 74-89, October.
  42. Lamarche, Carlos, 2010. "Robust penalized quantile regression estimation for panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 157(2), pages 396-408, August.
  43. Mundlak, Yair, 1978. "On the Pooling of Time Series and Cross Section Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 69-85, January.
  44. Coad, Alex & Rao, Rekha, 2008. "Innovation and firm growth in high-tech sectors: A quantile regression approach," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 633-648, May.
  45. Prantl, Susanne & Howitt, Peter & Griffith, Rachel & Blundell, Richard & Aghion, Philippe, 2004. "Entry and Productivity Growth: Evidence From Microlevel Panel Data," Scholarly Articles 4481510, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  46. Robert J. Barro & Jong-Wha Lee, 2010. "A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950-2010," NBER Working Papers 15902, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  47. Alex Coad & Rekha Rao, 2006. "Innovation and market value: a quantile regression analysis," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 15(13), pages 1-10.
  48. Jérôme Vandenbussche & Philippe Aghion & Costas Meghir, 2004. "Growth, distance to frontier and composition of human capital," IFS Working Papers W04/31, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  49. André Sapir & Philippe Aghion & Giuseppe Bertola & Martin Hellwig & Jean Pisani-Ferry & Bernard Lange & José Viñals & Helen Wallace & Marco Buti & Mario Nava & Peter Smith, 2004. "An agenda for a growing Europe: the Sapir report," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/8070, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  50. Enrico Moretti, 2004. "Workers' Education, Spillovers, and Productivity: Evidence from Plant-Level Production Functions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 656-690, June.
  51. Bernd Ebersberger & Orietta Marsili & Toke Reichstein & Ammon Salter, 2010. "Into thin air: using a quantile regression approach to explore the relationship between R&D and innovation," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(1), pages 95-102.
  52. Colm Harmon & Hessel Oosterbeek & Ian Walker, 2003. "The Returns to Education: Microeconomics," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(2), pages 115-156, 04.
  53. Buchinsky, Moshe, 1994. "Changes in the U.S. Wage Structure 1963-1987: Application of Quantile Regression," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(2), pages 405-58, March.
  54. Galvao Jr., Antonio F., 2011. "Quantile regression for dynamic panel data with fixed effects," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 164(1), pages 142-157, September.
  55. Mason, Geoff & O'Leary, Brigid & Vecchi, Michela, 2012. "Certified and uncertified skills and productivity growth performance: Cross-country evidence at industry level," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 351-360.
  56. Bronwyn H. Hall & Nathan Rosenberg (ed.), 2010. "Handbook of the Economics of Innovation," Handbook of the Economics of Innovation, Elsevier, edition 1, volume 1, number 1, 05.
  57. Rachel Griffith & Stephen Redding & John Van Reenen, 2003. "R&D and absorptive capacity : theory and empirical evidence," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 209, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  58. Matthew T. Clements & Hiroshi Ohashi, 2004. "Indirect Network Effects and the Product Cycle: Video Games in the U.S., 1994-2002," CIRJE F-Series CIRJE-F-261, CIRJE, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo.
  59. Hanushek, Eric A. & Wößmann, Ludger, 2008. "The role of cognitive skills in economic development," Munich Reprints in Economics 20454, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  60. Mariann RIGO & Vincent VANDENBERGHE & Fabio WALTENBERG, 2012. "Ageing and Employability. Evidence from Belgian Firm-Level Data," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2012011, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  61. Flabbi, Luca & Paternostro, Stefano & Tiongson, Erwin R., 2007. "Returns to education in the economic transition : a systematic assessment using comparable data," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4225, The World Bank.
  62. Agustí Segarra & Mercedes Teruel, 2011. "Productivity and R&D sources: evidence for Catalan firms," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(8), pages 727-748, September.
  63. Kang-Shik Choi & Jinook Jeong, 2007. "Does unmeasured ability explain the wage premium associated with technological change?: Quantile regression analysis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(9), pages 1163-1171.
  64. Erik Stam & Karl Wennberg, 2009. "The roles of R&D in new firm growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 77-89, June.
  65. Goedhuys, Micheline & Sleuwaegen, Leo, 2009. "High-Growth Entrepreneurial Firms in Africa: A Quantile Regression Approach," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  66. Joop Hartog & Pedro Pereira & Jose Vieira, 2001. "Changing returns to education in Portugal during the 1980s and early 1990s: OLS and quantile regression estimators," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(8), pages 1021-1037.
  67. John Haltiwanger & Julia Lane & James Spletzer, 2000. "Wages, Productivity, and the Dynamic Interaction of Businesses and Workers," NBER Working Papers 7994, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  68. Lance Lochner & Youngki Shin, 2014. "Understanding Earnings Dynamics: Identifying and Estimating the Changing Roles of Unobserved Ability, Permanent and Transitory Shocks," University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity Working Papers 20142, University of Western Ontario, CIBC Centre for Human Capital and Productivity.
  69. Alan Krueger & Mikael Lindahl, 2000. "Education for Growth: Why and For Whom?," Working Papers 808, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  70. Bronwyn H. Hall, 2011. "Innovation and Productivity," NBER Working Papers 17178, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  71. Bartelsman, Eric J & Haskel, Jonathan & Martin, Ralf, 2008. "Distance to Which Frontier? Evidence on Productivity Convergence from International Firm-level Data," CEPR Discussion Papers 7032, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  72. Kevin Denny & Vincent O'Sullivan, 2004. "Can education compensate for low ability? Evidence from British data," IFS Working Papers W04/19, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  73. Ioannis Bournakis & Sushanta Mallick & David Kernohan & Dimitris A.Tsouknidis, 2013. "Measuring Firm-Level Productivity Convergence in the UK: The Role of Taxation and R&D Investment," Working Papers 45, Queen Mary, University of London, School of Business and Management, Centre for Globalisation Research.
  74. Werner Hölzl & Klaus Friesenbichler, 2010. "High-growth firms, innovation and the distance to the frontier," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 30(2), pages 1016-1024.
  75. Mata, José & Woerter, Martin, 2013. "Risky innovation: The impact of internal and external R&D strategies upon the distribution of returns," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 495-501.
  76. Chamberlain, Gary, 1982. "Multivariate regression models for panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 5-46, January.
  77. Benhabib, Jess & Spiegel, Mark M., 1994. "The role of human capital in economic development evidence from aggregate cross-country data," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 143-173, October.
  78. Chad Syverson, 2010. "What Determines Productivity?," NBER Working Papers 15712, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  79. Moshe Buchinsky, 2001. "Quantile regression with sample selection: Estimating women's return to education in the U.S," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 87-113.
  80. Jérôme Vandenbussche & Philippe Aghion & Costas Meghir, 2006. "Growth, distance to frontier and composition of human capital," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 11(2), pages 97-127, June.
  81. Robert Inklaar & Marcel P. Timmer & Bart van Ark, 2008. "Market services productivity across Europe and the US," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 23, pages 139-194, 01.
  82. Lara LEBEDINSKI & Vincent VANDENBERGHE, 2013. "Assessing education's contribution to productivity using firm-level evidence," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2013017, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  83. Ohinata, A. & van Ours, J.C., 2013. "Spillover Effects of Studying with Immigrant Students : A Quantile Regression Approach," Discussion Paper 2013-058, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  84. Robert Wieser, 2005. "Research And Development Productivity And Spillovers: Empirical Evidence At The Firm Level," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(4), pages 587-621, 09.
  85. Neil Foster-McGregor & Anders Isaksson & Florian Kaulich, 2013. "Importing, Exporting and the Productivity of Services Firms in Sub-Saharan Africa," wiiw Working Papers 98, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
  86. Werner Roeger & Janos Varga & Jan in 't Veld, 2010. "How to close the productivity gap between the US and Europe: A quantitative assessment using a semi-endogenous growth model," European Economy - Economic Papers 399, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
  87. José Mata & José A. F. Machado, 2005. "Counterfactual decomposition of changes in wage distributions using quantile regression," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(4), pages 445-465.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp7540. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.