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Gazelles as Job Creators – A Survey and Interpretation of the Evidence

  • Henrekson, Magnus

    ()

    (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))

  • Johansson, Dan

    ()

    (Ratio)

It is often claimed that small and young firms account for a disproportionately large share of net employment growth. We conduct a meta analysis of the empirical evidence regarding whether net employment growth rather is generated by a few rapidly growing firms – so-called Gazelles – that are not necessarily small and young. Gazelles are found to be outstanding job creators. They create all or a large share of new net jobs. On average, Gazelles are younger and smaller than other firms, but it is young age more than small size that is associated with rapid growth. Gazelles also seem to be overrepresented in services.

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Paper provided by Research Institute of Industrial Economics in its series Working Paper Series with number 733.

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Length: 25 pages
Date of creation: 08 Feb 2008
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Small Business Economics, 2010, pages 227-244.
Handle: RePEc:hhs:iuiwop:0733
Contact details of provider: Postal: Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Box 55665, SE-102 15 Stockholm, Sweden
Phone: +46 8 665 4500
Fax: +46 8 665 4599
Web page: http://www.ifn.se/
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  1. Dan Johansson, 2005. "The Turnover of Firms and Industry Growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 24(5), pages 487-495, 06.
  2. Francesca Lotti & Enrico Santarelli & Marco Vivarelli, 2003. "Does Gibrat's Law hold among young, small firms?," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 213-235, August.
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  4. Henrekson, Magnus & Johansson, Dan, 1999. " Institutional Effects on the Evolution of the Size Distribution of Firms," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 11-23, February.
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  8. Henrekson, Magnus, 2002. "Entrepreneurship: A Weak Link in the Welfare State," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 518, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 04 Mar 2005.
  9. Audretsch, D.B. & Klomp, L. & Thurik, A.R., 2002. "Gibrat's Law: are the services different?," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2002-04-STR, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus University Rotterdam.
  10. Simon Parker & David Storey & Arjen Witteloostuijn, 2010. "What happens to gazelles? The importance of dynamic management strategy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 35(2), pages 203-226, September.
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  14. Zoltan Acs & Pamela Mueller, 2008. "Employment effects of business dynamics: Mice, Gazelles and Elephants," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 30(1), pages 85-100, January.
  15. Davis, Steven J. & Haltiwanger, John, 1999. "Gross job flows," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 41, pages 2711-2805 Elsevier.
  16. repec:dgr:uvatin:20040114 is not listed on IDEAS
  17. Steven J. Davis & John C. Haltiwanger & Scott Schuh, 1998. "Job Creation and Destruction," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262540932, June.
  18. Michael Fritsch & Pamela Mueller, 2004. "The Effects of New Business Formation on Regional Development over Time," Papers on Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy 2004-36, Max Planck Institute of Economics, Entrepreneurship, Growth and Public Policy Group.
  19. Michael Fritsch & Antje Weyh, 2006. "How Large are the Direct Employment Effects of New Businesses? An Empirical Investigation for West Germany," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(2), pages 245-260, October.
  20. Bartelsman, Eric & Haltiwanger, John & Scarpetta1, Stefano, 2004. "Microeconomic evidence of creative destruction in industrial and developing countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3464, The World Bank.
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  22. Davis, Steven J & Haltiwanger, John & Schuh, Scott, 1996. " Small Business and Job Creation: Dissecting the Myth and Reassessing the Facts," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 297-315, August.
  23. Brown, Clair & Haltiwanger, John & Lane, Julia, 2006. "Economic Turbulence," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 0, number 9780226076324.
  24. Delmar, Frederic & Davidsson, Per & Gartner, William B., 2003. "Arriving at the high-growth firm," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 189-216, March.
  25. Eric Bartelsman & Stefano Scarpetta & Fabiano Schivardi, 2005. "Comparative analysis of firm demographics and survival: evidence from micro-level sources in OECD countries," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 14(3), pages 365-391, June.
  26. Davidsson, Per & Henrekson, Magnus, 2000. "Determinants of the Prevalence of Start-ups and High-Growth Firms," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 381, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 26 May 2002.
  27. Littunen, Hannu & Tohmo, Timo, 2003. " The High Growth in New Metal-Based Manufacturing and Business Service Firms in Finland," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 21(2), pages 187-200, September.
  28. Henrekson, Magnus & Jakobsson, Ulf, 2003. "The Swedish Model of Corporate Ownership and Control in Transition," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 521, Stockholm School of Economics, revised 16 Apr 2003.
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