IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Gender Disparities in the Malagasy Labour Market

  • Christophe Nordman


    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

  • Faly Rakotomanana


    (INSTAT - DSM, Antananarivo)

  • Anne-Sophie Robilliard


    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

(english) In this study, we address the issue of gender differences in labour market performances for Madagascar using data from two national household surveys carried out in 2001 and 2005. The data collected in these surveys allow us to measure the gender pay gap at two points in time, and to analyze the determinants of occupational choices across sectors of employment as well as of wages and earnings. Our results show that the average gender wage gap is relatively small and stable over time. Across wage employment sectors, the gender gap appears to be the lowest in the public sector and the highest in the informal sector. In non-farm self-employment, however, the gender earnings gap is much higher and declined between 2001 and 2005. Using full decomposition techniques, we provide evidence that gender specific sectoral location explains a significant share of the gender wage gap in both years. Augmented earnings equations estimates carried out for the non-farm self-employment sector suggest that the gap in this sector is driven by the very unequal distribution of micro-firm attributes between men and women. This results points to a potential source of earnings differential often ignored in the gender gap literature which is access to physical capital by women. _________________________________ (français) Dans cet article, nous analysons les différences de genre en matière de performances sur le marché du travail de Madagascar à l’aide d’enquêtes ménages menées au niveau national en 2001 et en 2005. Grâce à ces deux points dans le temps, nous examinons la dynamique des déterminants de l’allocation sectorielle et de l’écart de gains entre sexes. Nos résultats montrent que l’écart salarial moyen entre sexes est relativement faible et stable entre ces deux périodes. L’écart salarial est le plus faible dans le secteur public et le plus élevé dans le secteur informel. Pour les travailleurs indépendants horsagriculture, l’écart de gains est beaucoup plus élevé et a décliné entre 2001 et 2005, une période de crise économique. A l’aide de décompositions de ces écarts, nous montrons que les différences de localisation sectorielle selon les sexes expliquent une grande part de l’écart de gains pour les deux années. L’estimation de fonctions de gains augmentées de caractéristiques des micro-entreprises des travailleurs indépendants suggère par ailleurs que l’écart de genre dans ce secteur s’explique en grande partie par une répartition inégale entre sexes des attributs des micro-entreprises, en particulier du capital physique. Ce résultat met en évidence une source potentielle de discrimination souvent ignorée dans la littérature, à savoir l’accès au capital physique par les femmes.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
File Function: First version, 2009
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2009/08.

in new window

Length: 57 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200908
Contact details of provider: Postal:
4, rue d'Enghien, 75010 Paris

Phone: + 33 1 53 24 14 50
Fax: + 33 1 53 24 14 51
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Marcel Fafchamps & Bart Minten, 2007. "Public Service Provision, User Fees and Political Turmoil," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 16(3), pages 485-518, June.
  2. François Bourguignon & Martin Fournier & Marc Gurgand, 2002. "Selection Bias Correction Based on the Multinomial Logit Model," Working Papers 2002-04, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Statistique.
  3. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000. "Gender Differences in Pay," NBER Working Papers 7732, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Horton, Susan & Kanbur, Ravi & Mazumdar, Dipak, 1991. "Labor markets in an era of adjustment : an overview," Policy Research Working Paper Series 694, The World Bank.
  5. Nicita, Alessandro & Razzaz, Susan, 2003. "Who benefits and how much? : how gender affects welfare impacts of a booming textile industry," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3029, The World Bank.
  6. Weichselbaumer, Doris & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 2003. "A Meta-Analysis of the International Gender Wage Gap," IZA Discussion Papers 906, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Maloney, William F., 2004. "Informality Revisited," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(7), pages 1159-1178, July.
  8. Card, David, 1999. "The causal effect of education on earnings," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & D. Card (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 30, pages 1801-1863 Elsevier.
  9. T. Paul Schultz, 2003. "Evidence of Returns to Schooling in Africa from Household Surveys: Monitoring and Restructuring the Market for Education," Working Papers 875, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
  10. Christophe J. Nordman & François Roubaud, 2009. "Reassessing the Gender Wage Gap in Madagascar: Does Labor Force Attachment Really Matter?," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 57(4), pages 785-808, 07.
  11. Simon Appleton & John Hoddinott & Pramila Krishnan, 1996. "The gender wage gap in three African countries," CSAE Working Paper Series 1996-07, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  12. Alan S. Blinder, 1973. "Wage Discrimination: Reduced Form and Structural Estimates," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 8(4), pages 436-455.
  13. Bennell, Paul, 1996. "Rates of return to education: Does the conventional pattern prevail in sub-Saharan Africa?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 183-199, January.
  14. Hausman, Jerry & McFadden, Daniel, 1984. "Specification Tests for the Multinomial Logit Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(5), pages 1219-40, September.
  15. Lee, Lung-Fei, 1983. "Generalized Econometric Models with Selectivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(2), pages 507-12, March.
  16. Regan, Tracy L. & Oaxaca, Ronald L., 2006. "Work Experience as a Source of Specification Error in Earnings Models: Implications for Gender Wage Decompositions," IZA Discussion Papers 1920, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  17. Måns Söderbom & Francis Teal & Anthony Wambugu & Godius Kahyarara, 2006. "The Dynamics of Returns to Education in Kenyan and Tanzanian Manufacturing," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 68(3), pages 261-288, 06.
  18. Sanders Korenman & David Neumark, 1991. "Does Marriage Really Make Men More Productive?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 26(2), pages 282-307.
  19. Olsen, Randall J, 1980. "A Least Squares Correction for Selectivity Bias," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(7), pages 1815-20, November.
  20. Glick, Peter & Sahn, David E, 1997. "Gender and Education Impacts on Employment and Earnings in West Africa: Evidence from Guinea," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(4), pages 793-823, July.
  21. David Neumark, 1987. "Employers' discriminatory behavior and the estimation of wage discrimination," Special Studies Papers 227, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  22. Randall S. Brown & Marilyn Moon & Barbara S. Zoloth, 1980. "Incorporating Occupational Attainment in Studies of Male-Female Earnings Differentials," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 15(1), pages 3-28.
  23. Christophe Nordman & François-Charles Wolff, 2008. "Islands through the glass ceiling? Evidence of gender wage gaps in Madagascar and Mauritius," Working Papers DT/2008/02, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
  24. repec:dau:papers:123456789/4400 is not listed on IDEAS
  25. Tilahun Temesgen, 2006. "Decomposing Gender Wage Differentials in Urban Ethiopia: Evidence from Linked Employer-Employee (LEE) Manufacturing Survey Data," Global Economic Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(1), pages 43-66.
  26. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
  27. Kuepie, Mathias & Nordman, Christophe J. & Roubaud, François, 2009. "Education and earnings in urban West Africa," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 491-515, September.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200908. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Loic Le Pezennec)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.