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Gender Disparities in the Malagasy Labour Market

  • Christophe Nordman

    ()

    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

  • Faly Rakotomanana

    ()

    (INSTAT - DSM, Antananarivo)

  • Anne-Sophie Robilliard

    ()

    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

(english) In this study, we address the issue of gender differences in labour market performances for Madagascar using data from two national household surveys carried out in 2001 and 2005. The data collected in these surveys allow us to measure the gender pay gap at two points in time, and to analyze the determinants of occupational choices across sectors of employment as well as of wages and earnings. Our results show that the average gender wage gap is relatively small and stable over time. Across wage employment sectors, the gender gap appears to be the lowest in the public sector and the highest in the informal sector. In non-farm self-employment, however, the gender earnings gap is much higher and declined between 2001 and 2005. Using full decomposition techniques, we provide evidence that gender specific sectoral location explains a significant share of the gender wage gap in both years. Augmented earnings equations estimates carried out for the non-farm self-employment sector suggest that the gap in this sector is driven by the very unequal distribution of micro-firm attributes between men and women. This results points to a potential source of earnings differential often ignored in the gender gap literature which is access to physical capital by women. _________________________________ (français) Dans cet article, nous analysons les différences de genre en matière de performances sur le marché du travail de Madagascar à l’aide d’enquêtes ménages menées au niveau national en 2001 et en 2005. Grâce à ces deux points dans le temps, nous examinons la dynamique des déterminants de l’allocation sectorielle et de l’écart de gains entre sexes. Nos résultats montrent que l’écart salarial moyen entre sexes est relativement faible et stable entre ces deux périodes. L’écart salarial est le plus faible dans le secteur public et le plus élevé dans le secteur informel. Pour les travailleurs indépendants horsagriculture, l’écart de gains est beaucoup plus élevé et a décliné entre 2001 et 2005, une période de crise économique. A l’aide de décompositions de ces écarts, nous montrons que les différences de localisation sectorielle selon les sexes expliquent une grande part de l’écart de gains pour les deux années. L’estimation de fonctions de gains augmentées de caractéristiques des micro-entreprises des travailleurs indépendants suggère par ailleurs que l’écart de genre dans ce secteur s’explique en grande partie par une répartition inégale entre sexes des attributs des micro-entreprises, en particulier du capital physique. Ce résultat met en évidence une source potentielle de discrimination souvent ignorée dans la littérature, à savoir l’accès au capital physique par les femmes.

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File URL: http://www.dial.ird.fr/media/ird-sites-d-unites-de-recherche/dial/documents/publications/doc_travail/2009/2009-08
File Function: First version, 2009
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Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2009/08.

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Length: 57 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200908
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