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Dynamique des profits des micro-entreprises urbaines et genre à Madagascar. Une approche de régressions quantiles

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  • Jean-Pierre Lachaud

    (GED, Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV)

Abstract

Fondée sur les enquêtes prioritaires de Madagascar de 2001 et 2005, la présente recherche examine la dynamique des profits des micro-entreprises urbaines selon le genre. Premièrement, la dualité des systèmes productifs à propre compte urbains selon le genre est assez stable au cours de la période 2001-2005, le rôle des micro-entreprises ayant à leur tête une femme étant probablement beaucoup plus résiduel en termes d’apport de revenus au sein du ménage. En outre, bien que les gains des micro-entreprises féminines ont, en moyenne, progressé un peu plus rapidement que ceux des entreprises dirigées par un homme au cours de la période, la diminution de l’inégalité des profits est plus prononcée pour les secondes, comparativement aux premières. Deuxièmement, indépendamment de la méthode d’analyse, le différentiel des profits entre les micro-entreprises gérées par un homme et celles ayant à leur tête une femme varie selon la distribution des gains des unités de production. D’une part, en admettant que le rendement des dotations des entreprises et des individus est identique entre les hommes et les femmes, l’estimation des fonctions de profits selon les quantiles suggère, par exemple en 2005, que les gains masculins sont supérieurs de 26,5 et de 54,5 pour cent, respectivement, aux 50ème 95ème percentiles. D’autre part, les approches de Oaxaca-Blinder – décomposition à la moyenne des variables – et de Machado-Mata – décomposition quantile par quantile –, appréhendant deux sources de gains à différents points de la distribution – rendements et dotations –, suggèrent que l’écart du log des profits entre les hommes et les femmes croît avec le niveau des percentiles. De tels résultats confortent l’opportunité des régressions quantiles en présence d’une forte dispersion de la variable d’intérêt. Troisièmement, l’approche des régressions quantiles met en évidence une forte variation de la contribution des dotations et des rendements selon les percentiles. Par exemple, pour 2005, le différentiel des gains masculins et féminins dû aux rendements est de 3,3 et 66,7 pour cent, respectivement, aux 10ème et 95ème percentiles. Inversement, on constate une forte baisse de la contribution des dotations dans l’explication de l’écart des profits entre les hommes et les femmes : 93,7 et 30,9 pour cent, respectivement, aux 10ème et 95ème percentiles. Dans ce contexte, plusieurs éléments d’analyse permettent d’appréhender le rôle des divers paramètres pris en compte, à la fois en termes de rendements et de caractéristiques. Based on the Madagascar priority surveys of 2001 and 2005, this research examines the dynamics of profits of urban micro-enterprises by gender. First, the duality of own account urban labour according to gender is fairly stable over the period 2001-2005, the role of micro-enterprises headed by women being probably more residual in terms of contribution of incomes within the household. In addition, while the earnings of women's micro-enterprises rose, on average, slightly faster than those of the enterprises managed by a man during the period, the reduction of the inequality of the profits is more pronounced for the latter compared to the former. Secondly, regardless of the method of analysis, the differential of profits between micro-enterprises managed by men and those headed by a woman varies according to the distribution of the earnings of the enterprises. First, assuming that the returns of endowments of enterprises and individuals are similar between men and women, the estimation of the profit functions according to quantiles suggests, for example in 2005, that male earnings are higher 26.5 and 54.5 percent, respectively, for 50th and 95th percentiles. On the other hand, the approach of Blinder-Oaxaca – decomposition at the means of variables - and of Machado-Mata – decomposition quantile by quantile –, apprehending two sources of earnings at different points of the profit distribution – returns and endowments –, indicate that the differential of log of earnings between men and women increases with the level of percentiles. Such results support the appropriateness of the quantile regression model in the presence of a strong dispersion of the variable of interest. Thirdly, the approach of quantile regression reveals a significant variation in the contribution of endowments and returns according to percentiles. For example, for 2005, the differential of male and female earnings due to returns is 3.3 and 66.7 percent, respectively, for 10th and 95th percentiles. Conversely, one notes a sharp decline in the contribution of endowments in explaining the difference of the profits between men and women: 93.7 and 30.9 percent, respectively, for 10th and 95th percentiles. In this context, several analytical elements make it possible to apprehend the role of various parameters taken into account, both in terms of returns and endowments.(Full text in french)

Suggested Citation

  • Jean-Pierre Lachaud, 2010. "Dynamique des profits des micro-entreprises urbaines et genre à Madagascar. Une approche de régressions quantiles," Documents de travail 151, Groupe d'Economie du Développement de l'Université Montesquieu Bordeaux IV.
  • Handle: RePEc:mon:ceddtr:151
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    JEL classification:

    • J01 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General - - - Labor Economics: General
    • J32 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Nonwage Labor Costs and Benefits; Retirement Plans; Private Pensions
    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure

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