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Who benefits and how much? : how gender affects welfare impacts of a booming textile industry

Author

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  • Nicita, Alessandro
  • Razzaz, Susan

Abstract

Exports of textile products originating from Sub-Saharan African countries have grown dramatically in the past decade. Recent trade initiatives, such as the"African Growth Opportunity Act"and"Everything but Arms,"along with low labor costs and improved integration into world markets, are giving further stimulus to the growth of the textile and apparel industry in Sub-Saharan African countries. Nicita and Razzaz explore the extent to which the poor are also beneficiaries of the export-led growth of particular economic sectors, or whether the poor are unable to reap any of the benefits and therefore fall further behind. They use a methodology that combines the matching methods literature (to identify individuals more likely to fill the new jobs of the expanding sector) with the industry wage premium literature (to quantify the gains of the individuals that move into the expanding sector). The results indicate that a sustained export-driven growth in Madagascar's textile and apparel industry will lead to a substantial increase in the income of poor households, with a consequent decrease in poverty. In a scenario simulating five years of expansion of the textile sector, the authors estimate that more than one million individuals will directly or indirectly receive some benefit. On average, households in which one or more members work in the textile sector get an increase in purchasing power of about 24 percent or US$14 a month. The results further show that benefits are unevenly distributed across male and female workers. Households in which a male member is employed in the textile and apparel industry increase their purchasing power by 36 percent or US$24.5 a month, compared with 22 percent or US$12.2 a month in the case of a female worker.

Suggested Citation

  • Nicita, Alessandro & Razzaz, Susan, 2003. "Who benefits and how much? : how gender affects welfare impacts of a booming textile industry," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3029, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:3029
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    2. L. ALAN WINTERS & NEIL McCULLOCH & ANDREW McKAY, 2015. "Trade Liberalization and Poverty: The Evidence So Far," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Non-Tariff Barriers, Regionalism and Poverty Essays in Applied International Trade Analysis, chapter 14, pages 271-314 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    3. Oaxaca, Ronald, 1973. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Urban Labor Markets," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 693-709, October.
    4. Bernard Hoekman & Francis Ng & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2002. "Eliminating Excessive Tariffs on Exports of Least Developed Countries," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 16(1), pages 1-21, June.
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    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Christophe Nordman & Faly Rakotomanana & Anne-Sophie Robilliard, 2009. "Gender Disparities in the Malagasy Labour Market," Working Papers DT/2009/08, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    2. Peter Glick & François Roubaud, 2004. "Export Processing Zone Expansion in an African Country: What are the Labor Market and Gender Impacts?," Working Papers DT/2004/15, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation), revised Dec 2004.
    3. Nicita, Alessandro, 2006. "Export led growth, pro-poor or not? Evidence from Madagascar's textile and apparel industry," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3841, The World Bank.
    4. repec:pit:wpaper:338 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. KUEPIE Mathias & DZOSSA Anaclet Désiré & KELODJOUE Samuel, 2013. "Determinants of labor market gender inequalities in Cameroon, Senegal and Mali: the role of human capital and the fertility burden," LISER Working Paper Series 2013-08, LISER.
    6. Dammert, Ana C. & Ural Marchand, Beyza & Wan, Chi, 2013. "Gender Wage-Productivity Differentials and Global Integration in China," IZA Discussion Papers 7159, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Cling, Jean-Pierre & Razafindrakoto, Mireille & Roubaud, Francois, 2005. "Export processing zones in Madagascar: a success story under threat?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 785-803, May.
    8. Ariel Barraud & German Calfat, 2008. "Poverty Effects from Trade Liberalisation in Argentina," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 44(3), pages 365-383.
    9. Maurizio Bussolo & Rafael E. De Hoyos, 2009. "Gender Aspects of the Trade and Poverty Nexus : A Macro-Micro Approach," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13264, June.
    10. Christophe Nordman & François Roubaud, 2005. "Reassessing the Gender Wage Gap: Does Labour Force Attachment Really Matter? Evidence from Matched Labour Force and Biographical Surveys in Madagascar," Working Papers 16, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    11. Lay, Jann & Golan, Jennifer, 2009. "The Impact of Agricultural Market Liberalisation from a Gender Perspective: Evidence from Uganda," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Frankfurt a.M. 2009 20, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.

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