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Globalization and Africa: implications for human development

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  • Asongu Simplice

    (Yaoundé/Cameroun)

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the effects of trade and financial globalization on human development in 52 African countries using updated data (1996-2010) and a new indicator of human development (adjusted for inequality). Design/methodology/approach – The estimation technique used is a Two-Stage-Least Squares Instrumental Variable methodology. Instruments include: income-levels, legal-origins and religious-dominations. The first-step consists of justifying the choice of the estimation technique with a Hausman-test for endogeneity. In the second-step, we verify that the instrumental variables are exogenous to the endogenous components of explaining variables (globalization dynamic channels) conditional on other covariates (control variables). In the third-step, the strength and validity of the instruments are assessed with the Cragg-Donald and Sargan overidentifying restrictions tests respectively. Robustness checks are ensured by: (1) use of alternative globalization indicators; (2) endogeneity based estimation; (3) adoption of two interchangeable sets of instruments; (4) estimation with a technique that controls for time-invariant unobservable shocks that affect openness and human development simultaneously. Findings – Findings broadly indicate that while trade globalization improves human development (consistent with the neoliberal theory), financial globalization has the opposite effect (in line with the hegemony thesis). The ‘life expectancy’ component of the HDI weighs most in the positive impact of trade globalization on human emancipation. Practical implications – Capital accounts should be opened in tandem with financial and institutional development. The investment atmosphere needs improvement to curtail capital flight (about 39%). Other policy implications include: adoption of openness options in a selective and gradual manner, development of some industrial backbone for an import-substitution or export-led industry, emphasis on regional trade and building capacity, development of the agricultural sector with continuous government assistance, building of rural infrastructure, increasing adult literacy rate and developing human resources, fighting corruption and mitigating wastages in government expenditure. Originality/value – These findings are based on very recent data. Usage of the inequality adjusted human development index first published in 2010, corrects past works of the bulk of criticisms inherent in the first index.

Suggested Citation

  • Asongu Simplice, 2012. "Globalization and Africa: implications for human development," Working Papers of the African Governance and Development Institute. 12/022, African Governance and Development Institute..
  • Handle: RePEc:agd:wpaper:12/022
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Simplice A. Asongu, 2015. "Law,Finance, Economic Growth and Welfare: Why Does Legal Origin Matter?," Institutions and Economies (formerly known as International Journal of Institutions and Economies), Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, vol. 7(2), pages 30-55, July.
    2. Simplice A., Asongu, 2011. "Finance and inequality: exploring pro-poor investment channels in Africa," MPRA Paper 34994, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Basu, Parantap & Guariglia, Alessandra, 2007. "Foreign Direct Investment, inequality, and growth," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 824-839, December.
    4. Simplice A ASONGU, 2012. "Globalization Financial Crisis And Contagion Time Dynamic Evidence From Financial Markets Of Developing Countries," Journal of Advanced Studies in Finance, ASERS Publishing, vol. 3(2), pages 131-139.
    5. Simplice A. Asongu, 2012. "Law and Finance in Africa," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 55(4), pages 385-408.
    6. Simplice Anutechia Asongu, 2012. "Bank Efficiency and Openness in Africa: Do Income Levels Matter?," The Review of Finance and Banking, Academia de Studii Economice din Bucuresti, Romania / Facultatea de Finante, Asigurari, Banci si Burse de Valori / Catedra de Finante, vol. 4(2), pages 115-122, December.
    7. Simplice A., Asongu, 2011. "Financial determinants of human development in developing countries," MPRA Paper 33949, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Greenwood, Jeremy & Jovanovic, Boyan, 1990. "Financial Development, Growth, and the Distribution of Income," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 98(5), pages 1076-1107, October.
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    11. Simplice ASONGU, 2011. "Why Do French Civil Law Countries Have Higher Levels Of Financial Efficiency," Journal of Advanced Research in Law and Economics, ASERS Publishing, vol. 2(4), pages 94-108.
    12. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross, 2003. "Law and finance: why does legal origin matter?," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 653-675, December.
    13. Rudiger Dornbusch, 1992. "The Case for Trade Liberalization in Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 6(1), pages 69-85, Winter.
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    17. Simplice A., Asongu, 2011. "Law, Finance and Investment: does legal origin matter?," MPRA Paper 34698, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Drusilla K. Brown & Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M. Stern, 2001. "CGE Modeling and Analysis of Multilateral and Regional Negotiating Options," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0108, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Globalization; Human development; Africa;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F30 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - General
    • I10 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - General
    • I30 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General
    • O55 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Africa

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