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Gender Aspects of the Trade and Poverty Nexus : A Macro-Micro Approach


  • Maurizio Bussolo
  • Rafael E. De Hoyos


This report is on the findings of a major international research project examining the links between trade, gender, and poverty. Trade liberalization can create economic opportunities, but women and men cannot take advantage of these opportunities on an equal basis. Women and men differ in their endowments, control over resources, access to labor markets, and their roles within the household. It may seem obvious that gender differences play an important role in transmitting the effects of trade expansion to poverty, especially in less developed countries, where gender inequality is usually more pronounced. Although the literature includes numerous analyses on the links between trade and poverty and between gender inequality and poverty, it seems not to have combined these two sets of studies in a consistent empirical framework. The main objective for the research project documented in this book was to fill, at least in part, this gap in the literature. This report describes the simplest conceptual framework that can be used to analyze the linkages between trade and poverty through gender. It includes two parts. The first, based on standard international trade models, considers the linkages between trade and gender. The second, based mainly on the microeconomic models of household behavior, deals with the linkages between gender and poverty.

Suggested Citation

  • Maurizio Bussolo & Rafael E. De Hoyos, 2009. "Gender Aspects of the Trade and Poverty Nexus : A Macro-Micro Approach," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 13264, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:13264

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Foster, James & Greer, Joel & Thorbecke, Erik, 1984. "A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(3), pages 761-766, May.
    2. Becker, Gary S., 1971. "The Economics of Discrimination," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 2, number 9780226041162, June.
    3. Nicita, Alessandro & Razzaz, Susan, 2003. "Who benefits and how much? : how gender affects welfare impacts of a booming textile industry," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3029, The World Bank.
    4. Morley, Samuel & Nakasone, Eduardo & Pineiro, Valeria, 2008. "The impact of CAFTA on employment, production, and poverty in Honduras:," IFPRI discussion papers 748, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    5. Rafael E. de Hoyos, 2005. "The Microeconomics of Inequality, Poverty and Market Liberalizing Reforms," WIDER Working Paper Series RP2005-63, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
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    2. Astrid Sneyers & Anneleen Vandeplas, 2013. "Girl Power in Agricultural Production: How Much Does it Yield? A Case-Study on the Dairy Sector in India," Working Papers id:5562, eSocialSciences.
    3. Elsa Kyander, 2020. "Trade Liberalisation and Female Employment in Manufacturing: Evidence from India," CSAE Working Paper Series 2020-22, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
    4. Franck Viroleau, 2015. "The Evolution of Gender Wage Inequality in Senegal Following the Economic Partnership Agreements," EconomiX Working Papers 2015-10, University of Paris Nanterre, EconomiX.
    5. Frohmann, Alicia, 2018. "Gender Equality and Trade Policy," Papers 1150, World Trade Institute.
    6. Wodon, Quentin, 2013. "Faith-inspired, Private Secular, and Public Schools in sub-Saharan Africa: Market Share, Reach to the Poor, Cost, and Satisfaction," MPRA Paper 45363, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Kajari Saha, 2021. "The China trade shock and the gender wage gap in India: A District-level analysis," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2021-012, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
    8. Oscar Molina Tejerina & Luis Castro Peñarrieta, 2020. "Unexplained Wage Gaps in the Tradable and Nontradable Sectors: Cross-Sectional Evidence by Gender in Bolivia," Investigación & Desarrollo 0120, Universidad Privada Boliviana, revised Nov 2020.
    9. Stephanie Seguino, 2013. "From micro-level gender relations to the macro economy and back again," Chapters, in: Deborah M. Figart & Tonia L. Warnecke (ed.), Handbook of Research on Gender and Economic Life, chapter 20, pages 325-344, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    10. Fall, Abdou & Salmon, Léa & Wodon, Quentin, 2010. "Impact sur la pauvreté et perceptions de la crise économique au Sénégal: Analyses quantitative et qualitative [Impact on Poverty and Perceptions of the Economic Crisis in Senegal: Quantitative and ," MPRA Paper 34417, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Denise Stanley, 2010. "Outmigration, Human Development and Trade: A Central American Case Study," Journal of Human Development and Capabilities, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 315-337.
    12. Cuenca-García, Eduardo & Sánchez, Angeles & Navarro-Pabsdorf, Margarita, 2019. "Assessing the performance of the least developed countries in terms of the Millennium Development Goals," Evaluation and Program Planning, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 54-66.
    13. Veysel Avsar, 2014. "Import Protection And Female Labor," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 59(05), pages 1-8.
    14. Kanbur, Ravi, 2014. "Globalization and Inequality," Working Papers 180163, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
    15. Ghani,Syed Ejaz & Grover,Arti & Kerr,Sari & Kerr,William Robert, 2016. "Will market competition trump gender discrimination in India ?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7814, The World Bank.
    16. Purna Banerjee & C. Veeramani, 2015. "Trade liberalisation and women's employment intensity: Analysis of India's manufacturing industries," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2015-018, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.

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