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Shadow Employment in Transition - A Matter of Choice or No Choice?

Author

Listed:
  • Cichocki, Stanislaw
  • Tyrowicz, Joanna

Abstract

Shadow employment may follow from two main labour market failures. In the first, official market labour taxation distortions make it ineffective for some agents to engage in registered employment due to a tax wedge, which makes the revenues from unofficial employment higher than the corresponding official ones (tax evasion hypothesis). The alternative explanation draws to labour market tightness - for workers regular employment may be unattainable, which results in seeking earning opportunities beyond the boundaries of the official labour market (market segmentation hypothesis). We use a unique data set from a survey on undeclared employment. Using propensity score matching and decomposition techniques we demonstrate that workers of the shadow economy are characterized by slightly higher endowments, while their revenues are considerably lower than among the matched official economy counterparts. Although unobservable heterogeneity is considerable, results are robust and point to social exclusion and the market segmentation hypothesis.

Suggested Citation

  • Cichocki, Stanislaw & Tyrowicz, Joanna, 2009. "Shadow Employment in Transition - A Matter of Choice or No Choice?," MPRA Paper 15464, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:15464
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. James J. Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Petra E. Todd, 1997. "Matching As An Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(4), pages 605-654.
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    3. repec:dau:papers:123456789/1888 is not listed on IDEAS
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    11. Eilat, Yair & Zinnes, Clifford, 2002. "The Shadow Economy in Transition Countries: Friend or Foe? A Policy Perspective," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(7), pages 1233-1254, July.
    12. James Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Jeffrey Smith & Petra Todd, 1998. "Characterizing Selection Bias Using Experimental Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(5), pages 1017-1098, September.
    13. Lemieux, Thomas & Fortin, Bernard & Frechette, Pierre, 1994. "The Effect of Taxes on Labor Supply in the Underground Economy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(1), pages 231-254, March.
    14. Johnson, Simon & Kaufmann, Daniel & Zoido-Lobatón, Pablo, 1998. "Corruption, public finances and the unofficial economy," Sede de la CEPAL en Santiago (Estudios e Investigaciones) 34372, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL).
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Maciej Beręsewicz & Dagmara Nikulin, 2018. "Informal employment in Poland: an empirical spatial analysis," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(3), pages 338-355, July.
    2. repec:kap:empiri:v:46:y:2019:i:3:d:10.1007_s10663-018-9403-0 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Joanna TYROWICZ & Piotr W�JCIK, 2009. "Some Remarks On The Effects Of Active Labour Market Policies In Post-Transition," Journal of Applied Economic Sciences, Spiru Haret University, Faculty of Financial Management and Accounting Craiova, vol. 4(2(8)_ Sum).
    4. repec:ris:utmsje:0206 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:eee:jpolmo:v:40:y:2018:i:1:p:166-181 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. repec:pkk:sfyr17:20-34 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Novkovska, Blagica, 2016. "How Strongly The Hidden Economy Of A Small Country Can Be Influenced By Drastic Events: Case Of Macedonia," UTMS Journal of Economics, University of Tourism and Management, Skopje, Macedonia, vol. 7(2), pages 187-195.
    8. Peter Elek & Janos Kollo, 2016. "Eliciting permanent and transitory undeclared work from matched administrative and survey data," Budapest Working Papers on the Labour Market 1605, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    undeclared employment; propensity score matching; transition;

    JEL classification:

    • O17 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Formal and Informal Sectors; Shadow Economy; Institutional Arrangements
    • P37 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions - - - Legal
    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply

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