IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/b/wfo/wstudy/61256.html
   My bibliography  Save this book

A Policy Framework for Optimising the Benefits of Digitalisation for Economic Growth, Employment and Welfare

Author

Listed:
  • Julia Bock-Schappelwein

    (WIFO)

  • Michael Böheim

    (WIFO)

  • Elisabeth Christen

    (WIFO)

  • Stefan Ederer

    (WIFO)

  • Matthias Firgo

    (WIFO)

  • Klaus S. Friesenbichler

    (WIFO)

  • Werner Hölzl

    (WIFO)

  • Mathias Kirchner

    (WIFO)

  • Angela Köppl

    (WIFO)

  • Agnes Kügler

    (WIFO)

  • Christine Mayrhuber

    (WIFO)

  • Philipp Piribauer

    (WIFO)

  • Margit Schratzenstaller

    (WIFO)

Abstract

Digital technologies are fundamentally calling into question existing market mechanisms, economic policy instruments, structures as well as economic and social interactions. Whereas in traditional markets product and service prices have the central allocation function, the connection between price and value is largely resolved in the data-driven economy. The reason for this lies in the specific cost structure, which is characterised by high fixed costs coupled with extremely low marginal costs (close to zero). This cost structure favours the monetary (almost) free scaling of digital products and services on "platform markets". In the digital economy, power over data is the decisive competitive factor. In extreme cases, this results in (natural) monopolies. Based on six thematic analyses (Macroeconomics, Public Sector, Competition, Space, Social Protection, Environment and Energy), the findings on three meta-hypotheses, which set the policy framework to maximise the benefits of digitisation for economic growth, employment and welfare, are summarised: 1. The "new" economy is an economy of digital data ("digitalism"). 2. Existing structures break up ("structural break"). 3. New structures manifest themselves in extremes ("polarisation").

Suggested Citation

  • Julia Bock-Schappelwein & Michael Böheim & Elisabeth Christen & Stefan Ederer & Matthias Firgo & Klaus S. Friesenbichler & Werner Hölzl & Mathias Kirchner & Angela Köppl & Agnes Kügler & Christine May, 2018. "A Policy Framework for Optimising the Benefits of Digitalisation for Economic Growth, Employment and Welfare," WIFO Studies, WIFO, number 61256, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:wfo:wstudy:61256
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.wifo.ac.at/wwa/pubid/61256
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Maris Goldmanis & Ali Hortaçsu & Chad Syverson & Önsel Emre, 2010. "E-Commerce and the Market Structure of Retail Industries," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 120(545), pages 651-682, June.
    2. Robert J. Gordon, 2016. "The Rise and Fall of American Growth: The U.S. Standard of Living since the Civil War," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 10544, December.
    3. David Autor & David Dorn & Lawrence F. Katz & Christina Patterson & John Van Reenen, 2017. "Concentrating on the Fall of the Labor Share," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 107(5), pages 180-185, May.
    4. Prince, Jeffrey T., 2007. "The beginning of online/retail competition and its origins: An application to personal computers," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 139-156, February.
    5. Francesco Chiacchio & Georgios Petropoulos & David Pichler, 2018. "The impact of industrial robots on EU employment and wages: A local labour market approach," Working Papers 25186, Bruegel.
    6. Alan S. Blinder, 2009. "How Many US Jobs Might be Offshorable?," World Economics, World Economics, 1 Ivory Square, Plantation Wharf, London, United Kingdom, SW11 3UE, vol. 10(2), pages 41-78, April.
    7. repec:bla:worlde:v:40:y:2017:i:9:p:1866-1889 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Gérard P. Cachon & Christian Terwiesch & Yi Xu, 2008. "On the Effects of Consumer Search and Firm Entry in a Multiproduct Competitive Market," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 27(3), pages 461-473, 05-06.
    9. Lesley Chiou, 2009. "Empirical Analysis of Competition between Wal-Mart and Other Retail Channels," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(2), pages 285-322, June.
    10. Engelbert Stockhammer & Stefan Ederer, 2008. "Demand effects of the falling wage share in Austria," Empirica, Springer;Austrian Institute for Economic Research;Austrian Economic Association, vol. 35(5), pages 481-502, December.
    11. Melanie Arntz & Terry Gregory & Ulrich Zierahn, 2016. "The Risk of Automation for Jobs in OECD Countries: A Comparative Analysis," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 189, OECD Publishing.
    12. Baumol, William J, 1982. "Contestable Markets: An Uprising in the Theory of Industry Structure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(1), pages 1-15, March.
    13. Koen De Backer & Dorothee Flaig, 2017. "The future of global value chains: Business as usual or “a new normal”?," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Policy Papers 41, OECD Publishing.
    14. Jean‐Charles Rochet & Jean Tirole, 2006. "Two‐sided markets: a progress report," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 37(3), pages 645-667, September.
    15. Alexander Guschanski & Özlem Onaran, 2016. "The political economy of income distribution: industry level evidence from Austria," Working Paper Reihe der AK Wien - Materialien zu Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft 156, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik.
    16. repec:spr:adspsc:978-3-642-19251-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. P. W. Daniels & J. R. Bryson, 2005. "Sustaining business and professional services in a second city region," The Service Industries Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(4), pages 505-524, June.
    18. Massimo Riccaboni & Alessandro Rossi & Stefano Schiavo, 2013. "Global networks of trade and bits," Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination, Springer;Society for Economic Science with Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, vol. 8(1), pages 33-56, April.
    19. Nathalie Greenana & Jacques Mairesse, 2000. "Computers And Productivity In France: Some Evidence," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(3), pages 275-315.
    20. Dauth, Wolfgang & Findeisen, Sebastian & Südekum, Jens & Wößner, Nicole, 2017. "German robots - the impact of industrial robots on workers," IAB Discussion Paper 201730, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    21. Berg, Janine., 2016. "Income security in the on-demand economy : findings and policy lessons from a survey of crowdworkers," ILO Working Papers 994906483402676, International Labour Organization.
    22. Habermacher, Florian & Kirchgässner, Gebhard, 2013. "Das garantierte Grundeinkommen: Eine (leider) nicht bezahlbare Idee," Economics Working Paper Series 1313, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science, revised Aug 2013.
    23. Gaspar, Jess & Glaeser, Edward L., 1998. "Information Technology and the Future of Cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 136-156, January.
    24. Røpke, Inge & Haunstrup Christensen, Toke & Ole Jensen, Jesper, 2010. "Information and communication technologies - A new round of household electrification," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(4), pages 1764-1773, April.
    25. repec:tpr:restat:v:100:y:2018:i:5:p:753-768 is not listed on IDEAS
    26. Daron Acemoglu & Pascual Restrepo, 2017. "Robots and Jobs: Evidence from US Labor Markets," Boston University - Department of Economics - Working Papers Series dp-297, Boston University - Department of Economics.
    27. Georg Graetz & Guy Michaels, 2018. "Robots at Work," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 100(5), pages 753-768, December.
    28. Siano, Pierluigi, 2014. "Demand response and smart grids—A survey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 461-478.
    29. Lenaerts, Karolien & Kilhoffer, Zachary, 2017. "Government Responses to the Platform Economy: Where do we stand?," CEPS Papers 12773, Centre for European Policy Studies.
    30. Timothy F. Bresnahan & Erik Brynjolfsson & Lorin M. Hitt, 2002. "Information Technology, Workplace Organization, and the Demand for Skilled Labor: Firm-Level Evidence," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(1), pages 339-376.
    31. repec:zbw:zewexp:179119 is not listed on IDEAS
    32. repec:clr:wugarc:y:2016v:42i:4p:591 is not listed on IDEAS
    33. Bruno Pellegrino & Luigi Zingales, 2017. "Diagnosing the Italian Disease," NBER Working Papers 23964, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    34. Bertschek, Irene & Briglauer, Wolfgang & Hüschelrath, Kai & Kauf, Benedikt & Niebel, Thomas, 2016. "The economic impacts of telecommunications networks and broadband internet: A survey," ZEW Discussion Papers 16-056, ZEW - Leibniz-Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung GmbH Mannheim / Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    35. Caillaud, Bernard & Jullien, Bruno, 2003. " Chicken & Egg: Competition among Intermediation Service Providers," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 34(2), pages 309-328, Summer.
    36. Kolko, Jed, 2012. "Broadband and local growth," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 100-113.
    37. Sorrell, Steve & Dimitropoulos, John, 2008. "The rebound effect: Microeconomic definitions, limitations and extensions," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(3), pages 636-649, April.
    38. Terry Gregory & A.M. Salomons & Ulrich Zierahn, 2016. "Racing With or Against the Machine? Evidence from Europe," Working Papers 16-05, Utrecht School of Economics.
    39. repec:kap:empiri:v:44:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s10663-017-9372-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    40. Abeliansky, Ana L. & Martínez-Zarzoso, Imnaculada & Prettner, Klaus, 2015. "The impact of 3D printing on trade and FDI," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 262, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
    41. Andrea Ariu & Giordano Mion, 2017. "Service Trade and Occupational Tasks: An Empirical Investigation," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(9), pages 1866-1889, September.
    42. Hviid, Morten & Izquierdo Sanchez, Sofia & Jaques, Sabine, 2016. "From publishers to self-publishing: The disruptive effects of digitalisation on the book industry," MPRA Paper 76057, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    43. Goolsbee, Austan, 2001. "Competition in the Computer Industry: Online versus Retail," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(4), pages 487-499, December.
    44. Michael D. Smith & Erik Brynjolfsson, 2001. "Consumer Decision-making at an Internet Shopbot: Brand Still Matters," NBER Chapters,in: E-commerce, pages 541-558 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    45. Frey, Carl Benedikt & Osborne, Michael A., 2017. "The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerisation?," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 254-280.
    46. Sandra E. Black & Lisa M. Lynch, 2001. "How To Compete: The Impact Of Workplace Practices And Information Technology On Productivity," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 83(3), pages 434-445, August.
    47. David H. Autor, 2015. "Why Are There Still So Many Jobs? The History and Future of Workplace Automation," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 29(3), pages 3-30, Summer.
    48. Dengler, Katharina & Matthes, Britta, 2015. "Folgen der Digitalisierung für die Arbeitswelt : Substituierbarkeitspotenziale von Berufen in Deutschland," IAB-Forschungsbericht 201511, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    49. repec:kap:empiri:v:44:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s10663-016-9332-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    50. Austan Goolsbee, 2000. "In a World Without Borders: The Impact of Taxes on Internet Commerce," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 115(2), pages 561-576.
    51. Erik Brynjolfsson & Michael D. Smith, 2000. "Frictionless Commerce? A Comparison of Internet and Conventional Retailers," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 46(4), pages 563-585, April.
    52. Maarten Goos & Alan Manning & Anna Salomons, 2014. "Explaining Job Polarization: Routine-Biased Technological Change and Offshoring," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 104(8), pages 2509-2526, August.
    53. Erik Brynjolfsson & Lorin M. Hitt, 2003. "Computing Productivity: Firm-Level Evidence," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 793-808, November.
    54. Spyros Arvanitis, 2005. "Computerization, workplace organization, skilled labour and firm productivity: Evidence for the Swiss business sector," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(4), pages 225-249.
    55. Corneo Giacomo, 2018. "Ein Staatsfonds, der eine soziale Dividende finanziert," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, De Gruyter, vol. 19(2), pages 94-109, July.
    56. Kshetri, Nir, 2005. "Pattern of global cyber war and crime: A conceptual framework," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 11(4), pages 541-562, December.
    57. repec:iza:izawol:journl:y:2015:p:5 is not listed on IDEAS
    58. Habermacher, Florian & Kirchgässner, Gebhard, 2016. "Das bedingungslose Grundeinkommen: Eine (leider) nicht bezahlbare Idee," Economics Working Paper Series 1607, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science.
    59. A. Greening, Lorna & Greene, David L. & Difiglio, Carmen, 2000. "Energy efficiency and consumption -- the rebound effect -- a survey," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(6-7), pages 389-401, June.
    60. repec:clr:wugarc:y:2013:v:39i:4p:571 is not listed on IDEAS
    61. repec:spr:wirtsc:v:97:y:2017:i:11:d:10.1007_s10273-017-2217-z is not listed on IDEAS
    62. Gomez-Herrera, Estrella & Martens, Bertin & Turlea, Geomina, 2014. "The drivers and impediments for cross-border e-commerce in the EU," Information Economics and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 83-96.
    63. Andreas Lendle & Marcelo Olarreaga & Simon Schropp & Pierre‐Louis Vézina, 2016. "There Goes Gravity: eBay and the Death of Distance," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 126(591), pages 406-441, March.
    64. Lance Taylor & Duncan K Foley & Armon Rezai & Luiza Pires & Ozlem Omer & Ellis Scharfenaker, 2016. "Demand Drives Growth All The Way," SCEPA working paper series. SCEPA's main areas of research are macroeconomic policy, inequality and poverty, and globalization. 2016-04, Schwartz Center for Economic Policy Analysis (SCEPA), The New School.
    65. Klaus Friesenbichler, 2013. "Innovation in the energy sector," WWWforEurope Working Papers series 31, WWWforEurope.
    66. Daron Acemoglu & Pascual Restrepo, 2017. "Robots and Jobs: Evidence from US Labor Markets," NBER Working Papers 23285, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    67. Binswanger, Mathias, 2001. "Technological progress and sustainable development: what about the rebound effect?," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 119-132, January.
    68. repec:clr:wugarc:y:2017v:43i:3p:379 is not listed on IDEAS
    69. Eichhorst, Werner & Buhlmann, Florian, 2015. "Die Zukunft der Arbeit und der Wandel der Arbeitswelt," IZA Standpunkte 77, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    70. Edward E Leamer & Michael Storper, 2001. "The Economic Geography of the Internet Age," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 32(4), pages 641-665, December.
    71. Cédric Gossart, 2015. "Rebound effects and ICT : a review of the literature," Post-Print hal-01258112, HAL.
    72. Engelbert Stockhammer & Özlem Onaran & Stefan Ederer, 2009. "Functional income distribution and aggregate demand in the Euro area," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 33(1), pages 139-159, January.
    73. Lanz, Rainer & Maurer, Andreas, 2015. "Services and global value chains: Some evidence on servicification of manufacturing and services networks," WTO Staff Working Papers ERSD-2015-03, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    74. Gustav A. Horn & Fabian Lindner & Sabine Stephan, 2017. "Zur Rolle der Nominallöhne für die Handels- und Leistungsbilanzüberschüsse," IMK Report 125-2017, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.
    75. Marc J. Melitz, 2003. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1695-1725, November.
    76. Richard Freeman, 2015. "Who owns the robots rules the world," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 1-5, May.
    77. Piva, Mariacristina & Vivarelli, Marco, 2017. "Technological Change and Employment: Were Ricardo and Marx Right?," IZA Discussion Papers 10471, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    78. David H. Autor & Lawrence F. Katz & Melissa S. Kearney, 2008. "Trends in U.S. Wage Inequality: Revising the Revisionists," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(2), pages 300-323, May.
    79. Eichhorst, Werner & Hinte, Holger & Rinne, Ulf & Tobsch, Verena, 2016. "Digitalisierung und Arbeitsmarkt: Aktuelle Entwicklungen und sozialpolitische Herausforderungen," IZA Standpunkte 85, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    80. Rinaldo Evangelista, 2000. "Sectoral Patterns Of Technological Change In Services," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(3), pages 183-222.
    81. J. Daniel Khazzoom, 1980. "Economic Implications of Mandated Efficiency in Standards for Household Appliances," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 4), pages 21-40.
    82. Leimeister, Jan Marco & Zogaj, Shkodran, 2013. "Neue Arbeitsorganisation durch Crowdsourcing: Eine Literaturstudie," Arbeitspapiere 287, Hans-Böckler-Stiftung, Düsseldorf.
    83. Naus, Joeri & Spaargaren, Gert & van Vliet, Bas J.M. & van der Horst, Hilje M., 2014. "Smart grids, information flows and emerging domestic energy practices," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 436-446.
    84. Andrei Hagiu, 2009. "Two-Sided Platforms: Product Variety and Pricing Structures," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(4), pages 1011-1043, December.
    85. Michael Förster & Ana Llena-Nozal & Vahé Nafilyan, 2014. "Trends in Top Incomes and their Taxation in OECD Countries," OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers 159, OECD Publishing.
    86. Sorrell, Steve, 2009. "Jevons' Paradox revisited: The evidence for backfire from improved energy efficiency," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 1456-1469, April.
    87. Thomas Hempell, 2005. "What’s spurious, what’s real? Measuring the productivity impacts of ICT at the firm-level," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 427-464, September.
    88. X. Vence-Deza & M. González-López, 2008. "Regional Concentration of the Knowledge-based Economy in the EU: Towards a Renewed Oligocentric Model?," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(4), pages 557-578, May.
    89. Engelbert Stockhammer & Robert Stehrer, 2011. "Goodwin or Kalecki in Demand? Functional Income Distribution and Aggregate Demand in the Short Run," Review of Radical Political Economics, Union for Radical Political Economics, vol. 43(4), pages 506-522, December.
    90. Koen De Backer & Carlo Menon & Isabelle Desnoyers-James & Laurent Moussiegt, 2016. "Reshoring: Myth or Reality?," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Policy Papers 27, OECD Publishing.
    91. Stefan Humer & Mathias Moser & Matthias Schnetzer & Michael Ertl & Atila Kilic, 2014. "Einkommensverteilung in Österreich," Working Paper Reihe der AK Wien - Materialien zu Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft 125, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik.
    92. Mario Polèse & Richard Shearmur, 2004. "Is Distance Really Dead? Comparing Industrial Location Patterns over Time in Canada," International Regional Science Review, , vol. 27(4), pages 431-457, October.
    93. Estrella Gomez & Bertin Martens & Geomina Turlea, 2013. "Drivers and impediments for cross-border e-commerce in the EU," JRC Working Papers on Digital Economy 2013-02, Joint Research Centre (Seville site).
    94. repec:wfo:wstudy:46917 is not listed on IDEAS
    95. Aqib Aslam & Alpa Shah, 2017. "Taxation and the Peer-to-Peer Economy," IMF Working Papers 17/187, International Monetary Fund.
    96. David S. Evans & Richard Schmalensee, 2013. "The Antitrust Analysis of Multi-Sided Platform Businesses," NBER Working Papers 18783, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    97. Andre Torre & Alain Rallet, 2005. "Proximity and Localization," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(1), pages 47-59.
    98. Walwei, Ulrich., 2016. "Digitalization and structural labour market problems : the case of Germany," ILO Working Papers 994936693502676, International Labour Organization.
    99. Wolfgang Schwarzbauer, 2017. "Die Digitale Evolution," FIW Policy Brief series 034, FIW.
    100. Cernat, Lucian & Kutlina-Dimitrova, Zornitsa, 2014. "Thinking in a box: A ‘mode 5’ approach to service trade," DG TRADE Chief Economist Notes 2014-1, Directorate General for Trade, European Commission.
    101. Stefan Humer & Mathias Moser & Matthias Schnetzer & Michael Ertl & Atila Kilic, 2013. "Über die Bedeutung von Kapitaleinkommen für die Einkommensverteilung Österreichs," Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft - WuG, Kammer für Arbeiter und Angestellte für Wien, Abteilung Wirtschaftswissenschaft und Statistik, vol. 39(4), pages 571-586.
    102. Oliver Stettes & Melanie Arntz & Terry Gregory & Ulrich Zierahn & Katharina Dengler & Daniel Veit & Werner Eichhorst & Ulf Rinne, 2017. "Arbeitswelt 4.0: Wohlstandszuwachs oder Ungleichheit und Arbeitsplatzverlust – was bringt die Digitalisierung?," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 70(07), pages 03-18, April.
    103. George J. Stigler, 1961. "The Economics of Information," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 69, pages 213-213.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Themenplattform_Digitalisierung;

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wfo:wstudy:61256. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ilse Schulz). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/wifooat.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.