The World Bank
Policy Research Working Paper Series
- 1468 Government's role in Pakistan agriculture : major reforms are needed
by Faruquee, Rashid
- 1467 Beyond the Uruguay Round : the implications of an Asian free trade area
by Lewis, Jeffrey D. & Robinson, Sherman & Zhi Wang
- 1466 Ownership and financing of infrastructure : historical perspective
by Jacobson, Charles D. & Tarr, Joel A.
- 1465 Post trade liberalization policy and institutional challenges in Latin America and the Caribbean
by Rajapatirana, Sarath
- 1464 How does the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) affect Central America?
by Leamer, Edward E. & Guerra, Alfonso & Kaufman, Martin & Segura, Boris
- 1463 Rural nonfarm employment : a survey
by Lanjouw, Jean O. & Lanjouw, Peter
- 1462 Stock market development and financial intermediaries : stylized facts
by Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross
- 1461 Stock market development and firm financing choices
by Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav
- 1460 Efficiency and equity considerations in pricing and allocating irrigation water
by Tsur, Yacov & Dinar, Ariel
- 1459 Pension funds in Central Europe and Russia : their prospects and potential role in corporate governance
by Vittas, Dimitri & Michelitsch, Roland
- 1458 Credit policies : lessons from East Asia
by Vittas, Dimitri & Yoon Je Cho
- 1457 Does decentralization increase spending on public infrastructure?
by Estache, Antonio & Sinha, Sarbajit
- 1456 Equity markets, transaction costs, and capital accumulation
by Bencivenga, Valerie R. & Smith, Bruce D. & Starr, Ross M.
- 1455 Tentative first steps : an assessment of the Uruguay Round agreement on services
by Hoekman, Bernard
- 1454 Child labor : a review
by Grootaert, Christiaan & Kanbur, Ravi
- 1453 Air pollution and mortality : results from Santiago, Chile
by Ostr, Bart & Sanchez, Jose Miguel & Aranda, Carlos & Eskeland, Gunnar S.
- 1452 The 1985-94 global real estate cycle : its casues and consequences
by Renaud, Bertrand
- 1451 Tunisia's insurance sector
by Vittas, Dimitri
- 1450 Social safety net and the poor during the transition : the case of Bulgaria
by Hassan, Fareed M. A. & Peters, R. Kyle, Jr.
- 1449 Worker displacement during the transition : experience from Slovenia
by Orazem, Peter & Vodopivec, Milan & Wu, Ruth
- 1448 Environmental regulation and development : a cross-country empirical analysis
by Mody, Ashoka & Roy, Subhendu & Wheeler, David & Dasgupta, Susmita
- 1447 Environmental inspections and emissions of the pulp and paper industry : the case of Quebec
by Laplante, Benoit & Rilstone, Paul
- 1446 Review of integrated approaches to river basin, planning, development and management
by Lee, Donna J. & Dinar, Ariel
- 1445 Human capital and industry wage structure in Guatemala
by Sakellariou, Chris N.
- 1444 Roads, lands, markets, and deforestation : a spatial model of land use in Belize
by Chomitz, Kenneth M. & Gray, David A.
- 1443 Policy-based finance, financial regulation, and financial sector development in Japan
by Vittas, Dimitri & Akihiko Kawaura
- 1442 Energy price increases in developing countries : case studies of Colombia, Ghana, Indonesia, Malaysia, Turkey, and Zimbabwe
by Hope, Einar & Singh, Balbir
- 1441 The significance of credits and subsidies in Russian agricultural reform
by Galbi, Douglas
- 1440 Poverty and social transfers in Poland
by Grootaert, Christiaan
- 1439 Nontariff barriers Africa faces : what did the Uruguay Round accomplish, and what remains to be done?
by Amjadi, Azita & Yeats, Alexander
- 1438 Trade reform, efficiency, and growth
by Ghani, Ejaz & Jayarajah, Carl
- 1437 Travel mode substitution in Sao Paulo : estimates and implications for air pollution control
by Swait, Joffre & Eskeland, Gunnar S.
- 1436 An empirical model of sunk costs and the decision to export
by Roberts, Mark J. & Tybout, James R.
- 1435 The political economy of formal sector pay and employment in developing countries
by Banerji, Arup & Campos, J. Edgardo & Sabot, Richard H.
- 1434 Government credit policy and industrial performance : Japanese machine tool producers, 1963-91
by Calomiris, Charles W. & Himmelberg, Charles P.
- 1433 Enterprise restructuring in Eastern Europe : how much? how fast? where? - preliminary evidence from trade data
by Hoekman, Bernard & Pohl, Gerhard
- 1432 Using financial futures in trading and risk management
by Mas, Ignacio & Saa-Requejo, Jesus
- 1431 The industrial pollution projection system
by Hettige, Hemamala & Martin, Paul & Singh, Manjula & Wheeler,David R.
- 1430 Intergovernmental fiscal relations and poverty alleviation in Viet Nam
by Bird, Richard M. & Litvack, Jennie I. & Rao, M. Govinda
- 1429 The World Trade Organization's agreement on government procurement : expanding disciplines, declining membership?
by Hoekman, Bernard & Mavroidis, Petros C.
- 1428 Short-term supply responde to a devaluation : a model's implications for primary commodity-exporting developing countries
by Boccara, Bruno & Nsengiyumva, Fabien
- 1427 Corporate governance and equity prices : evidence from the Czech and Slovak Republics
by Claessens, Stijn
- 1426 Russian unemployment : its magnitude, characteristics, and regional dimensions
by Commander, Simon & Yemtsov, Ruslan
- 1425 On the intersectoral migration of agricultural labor
by Larson, Donald & Mundlak, Yair
- 1424 Terms-of-trade shocks and optimal investment : another look at the Laursen-Metzler effect
by Serven, Luis
- 1423 The role of commercial banks in enterprise restructuring in Central and Eastern Europe
by Long, Millard & Rutkowska, Izabela
- 1422 Efficiency in Bulgaria's schools : a nonparametric study
by Bogetic, Zeljko & Chattophadyay, Sajal
- 1421 Distribution of income and the income tax burden in Bulgaria
by Bogetic, Zeljko & Hassan, Fareed M. A.
- 1420 Legislative frameworks used to fosterpetroleum development
by Onorato, William T.
- 1419 Industry structure and regulation
by Stewart-Smith, Martin C.
- 1418 The impact of labor market regulations
by Squire, Lyn & Suthiwart-Narueput, Sethaput
- 1417 Uncertainty and global warming : an option - pricing approach to policy
by Baranzini, Andrea & Chesney, Marc & Morisset, Jacques
- 1416 Informal regulation of industrial pollution in developing countries : evidence from Indonesia
by Pargal, Sheoli & Wheeler, David
- 1415 China's GDP in U.S. dollars based on purchasing power parity
by Ruoen, Ren & Chen Kai
- 1414 The World Bank and legal technical assistance : initial lessons
by The World Bank Legal Department
- 1413 Endogenous distortions in product and labor markets
by Rama, Martin & Tabellini, Guido
- 1412 Foreign technology imports and economic growth in developing countries
by Xiaoming Zhang & Heng-fu Zou
- 1411 Income inequality, welfare, and poverty : an illustration using Ukranian data
by Kakwani, Nanak
- 1410 Macroeconomic effects of terms-of-trade shocks : the case of oil-exporting countries
by Spatafora, Nikola & Warner, Andrew
- 1409 Restructuring Uganda's debt : the commercial debt buy - back operation
by Kapoor, Kapil
- 1408 Macroeconomic management and intergovernmental relations in China
by Jun Ma
- 1407 Pakistan's agriculture sector : is 3 to 4 percent annual growth sustainable?
by Faruqee, Rashid
- 1406 Structural breaks and long-run trends in commodity prices
by Leon, Javier & Soto, Raimundo
- 1405 Growth and poverty in rural India
by Ravallion, Martin & Datt, Gaurav
- 13970 Policy research working papers : catalog of numbers 1201-1400
- 1392 Some economic consequences of the transition from civil war to peace
by Azam, Jean-Paul & Bevan, David & Collier, Paul & Dercon, Stefan & Gunning, Jan & Pradhan, Sanjay
- 1404 The Republic of Korea's small and medium size enterprises and their support systems
by Linsu Kim & Nugent, Jeffrey B.
- 1403 Small and medium-size enterprise support policies in Japan
by Motoshige Itoh & Shujiro Urata
- 1402 Indonesia's small and medium-size exporters and their support systems
by Berry, Albert & Levy, Brian
- 1401 Colombia's small and medium-size exporters and their support systems
by Berry, Albert & Escandon, Jose
- 1400 Technical and marketing support systems for successful small and medium-size enterprises in four countries
by Levy, Brian & Berry, Albert & Motoshige Itoh & Linsu Kim & Nugent, Jeffrey & Shujiro Urata
- 1399 How important to India's poor is the urban - rural composition of growth?
by Ravaillon, Martin & Datt, Gaurav
- 1398 The cost of air pollution abatement
by Hartman, Raymond & Wheeler, David & Singh, Manjula
- 1397 Are private capital flows to developing countries sustainable?
by Dadush, Uri & Dhareshwar, Ashok & Johannes, Ron
- 1396 A typology of foreign exchange auction markets in sub-Saharan Africa : dynamic models for auction exchange rates
by Aron, Janine & Elbadawi, Ibrahim
- 1395 A typology of foreign auction markets in sub-Saharan Africa
by Aron, Janine & Elbadawi, Ibrahim
- 1394 Macroeconomic reform and growth in Africa : adjustment in Africa revisited
by Bouton, Lawrence & Jones, Christine & Kiguel, Miguel
- 1393 The interface of trade, investment, and competition policies : issues and challenges for Latin America
by Guasch, J. Luis & Rajapatirana, Sarath
- 1391 Where in the world is population growth bad?
by Kling, Jeff & Pritchett, Lant
- 1390 Regional integration and the Baltics : which way?
by Sorsa, Piritta
- 1389 Ruble overhang and ruble shortage : were they the same thing?
by Conway, Patrick
- 1388 Does voice matter? : for public accountability, yes
by Paul, Samuel
- 1387 Fiscal decentralization and the size of the government : an extension with evidence from cross-country data
by Ehdaie, Jaber
- 1386 EU Bananarama III
by Borrell, Brent
- 1385 Fiscal federalism : dimensions of tax reform in developing countries
by Boadway, Robin & Roberts, Sandra & Shah, Anwar
- 1384 Fiscal decentralization and intergovernmental finances in the Republic of Albania
by Sewell, David & Wallich, Christine
- 1383 Rural demand for drought insurance
by Gautam, Madhur & Hazell, Peter & Alderman, Harold
- 1382 Saving, investment, and growth in developing countries : an overview
by Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus & Serven, Luis & Solimano, Andres
- 1381 Welfare economics, political economy, and policy reform in Ghana
by Kanbur, Ravi
- 1380 Transfers and the transition from socialism : key tradeoffs
by Krumm, Kathie & Milanovic, Branko & Walton, Michael
- 1379 Financing infrastructure in developing countries : lessons from the Railway Age
by Eichengreen, Barry
- 1378 Mexico after the debt crisis : is growth sustainable?
by Oks, Daniel & van Wijnbergen, Sweder
- 1377 Macroeconomic adjustment to capital inflows : Latin American style versus East Asian style
by Corbo, Vittorio & Hernandez, Leonardo
- 1376 How trade, aid, and remittances affect international migration
by Schiff, Maurice
- 1375 Policy lessons from a simple open - economy model
by Devarajan, Shantayanan & Go, Delfin S. & Lewis, Jeffrey D. & Robinson, Sherman & Sinko, Pekka
- 1374 Infrastructure finance : issues, institutions, and policies
by Chandavarkar, Anand
- 1373 Firm behavior and the labor market in the Hungarian transition
by Commander, Simon & Kollo, Janos & Ugaz, Cecilia
- 1372 Administrative charges in pensions in Chile, Malaysia, Zambia, and the United States
by Valdes-Prieto, Salvador
- 1371 The evolution of trade treaties and trade creation : lessons for Latin America
by Rajapatirana, Sarath
- 1370 Is East Asia less open than North America and the European Economic Community? No
by Dhar, Sumana & Panagariya, Arvind
- 1369 Economic policy reform, government debt guarantees, and financial bailouts
by Brock, Philip L. & DECVP
- 1368 Sustained inflation in response to price liberalization
by Conway, Patrick
- 1367 The economics of cash shortage
by Conway, Patrick
- 1366 Distributive concerns when replacing a pay-as-you-go system with a fully funded system
by Valdes-Prieto, Salvador
- 1365 The macroeconomics of adjustment in sub-Saharan African countries : results and lessons
by Husain, Ishrat
- 1364 Why do some economies adjust more successfully than others? lessons from seven African countries
by Husain, Ishrat
- 1363 Brazil's sugarcane sector : a case of lost opportunity
by Borrell, Brent & Bianco, Jose R. & Bale, Malcolm D.
- 1361 External shocks and performance responses during systemic transition : the case of Ukraine
by McCarthy, F. Desmond & Pant, Chandrashekar & Kangbin Zheng & Zanalda, Giovanni
- 1360 Are portfolio flows to emerging markets complementary or competitive?
by Gooptu, Sudarshan
- 1359 When method matters : toward a resolution of the debate about Bangladesh's poverty measures
by Ravallion, Martin & Sen, Binayak
- 1358 Patterns of behavior in biodiversity preservation
by Metrick, Andrew & Weitzman, Martin L.
- 1357 Does participation improve project performance : establishing causality with subjective data
by Isham, Jonathan & Narayan, Deepa & Pritchett, Lant
- 1356 Central bank independence : a critical view
by Mas, Ignacio
- 1355 Export incentives : the impact of recent policy changes
by Kathuria, Sanjay
- 1354 The effects of fiscal consolidation in the OECD
by McKibbin, Warwick J.
- 1353 Nontariff measures and developing countries : has the Uruguay Round leveled the playing field?
by Low, Patrick & Yeats, Alexander
- 1352 Trade and growth in Ecuador : a partial equilibrium view
by Hentschel, Jesko
- 1351 NAFTA's Implications for EastAsian exports
by Braga, Carlos A. Primo & Safadi, Raed & Yeats, Alexander
- 1350 Economic parameters of deforestation
by von Amsberg, Joachim & DEC
- 1349 The new regionalism and the threat of protectionism
by Hallet, Andrew Hughes & Braga, Carlos A. Primo & DEC
- 1348 Quality change and other influences on measures of export prices of manufactured goods
by Lipsey, Robert E.
- 1347 Antitrust-based remedies and dumping in international trade
by Hoekman, Bernard M. & Mavroidis, Petros C.
- 1346 Linking competition and trade policies in Central and Eastern European countries
by Hoekman, Bernard M. & Mavroidis, Petros C. & DEC
- 1345 The decentralization of public services : lessons from the theory of the firm
by Cremer, Jaques & Estache, Antonio & Seabright, Paul & DEC
- 1344 Which foreign investors worry about foreign exchange risk in South Asia and why?
by Bond, Eric & Estache, Antonio & DEC
- 1343 Strategic interdependence in the East-West gas trade : a hierarchical Stackelberg game approach
by Grais, Wafik & Kangbin Zheng & DEC
- 1342 Winners and losers in transition : returns to education, experience, and gender in Slovenia
by Orazem, Peter F. & Vodopivec, Milan
- 1341 Explaining Pakistan's high growth performance over the past two decades : can it be sustained ?
by Ahmed, Sadiq
- 1340 Opportunity cost and prudentiality : an analysis of futures clearinghouse behavior
by Baer, Herbert L. & France, Virginia G. & Moser, James T.
- 1339 China's emergence : prospects, opportunities, and challenges
by Boltho, Andrea & Dadush, Uri & Dong He & Shigeru Otsubo
- 1338 Commodity exports and the adding up problem in developing countries : trade, investment, and lending policy
by Schiff, Maurice
- 1337 The countrywide effects of aid
by White, Howard & Luttik, Joke & DEC
- 1336 Modernizing payment systems in emerging economies
by Listfield, Robert & Montes-Negret, Fernando
- 1335 Labor regulations and the informal economy
by Loayza, Norman V.
- 1334 Taxation, public services, and the informal sector in a model of endogenous growth
by Braun, Juan & Loayza, Norman V.
- 1333 A test of the international convergence hypothesis using panel data
by Loayza, Norman V. & DEC
- 1332 Poverty and household size
by Lanjouw, Peter & Ravallion, Martin & DEC
- 13310 Policy, Research working paper series : numbers 1281-1302
- 1331 Russian Federation - The myth of monopoly : a new view of industrial structure in Russia
by Brown, Annette N. & Ickes, Barry W. & Ryterman, Randi
- 1330 Revenue uncertainty and the choice of tax instrument during the transition in Eastern Europe
by Go, Delfin S.
- 1329 The regulation and supervision of domestic financial conglomerates
by Scott, David H. & EXT
- 1328 The use of New York cotton futures contracts to hedge cotton price risk in developing countries
by Varangis, Panos & Thigpen, Elton & Satyanarayan, Sudhakar & DEC
- 1327 Is the debt crisis history? Recent private capital inflows to developing countries
by Dooley, Michael & Fernandez-Arias, Eduardo & Kletzer, Kenneth & DEC
- 1326 Banks, capital markets, and corporate governance : lessons from Russia for Eastern Europe
by Pohl, Gerhard & Claessens, Stijn & DEC
- 1325 The economics of research and development : how research and development capital affects production and markets and is affected by tax incentives
by Shah, Anwar & DEC
- 1324 Voucher funds in transitional economies : the Czech and Slovak experience
by Anderson, Robert E.
- 1323 Energy pricing and air pollution : econometric evidence from manufacturing in Chile and Indonesia
by Eskeland, Gunnar S. & Jimenez, Emmanuel & Lili Liu & DEC
- 1322 Reducing regulatory barriers to private - sector participation in Latin America's water and sanitation services
by Richard, Barbara & Triche, Thelma & Apogee Research, Inc.
- 1321 Institutions and the East Asian miracle : asymmetric information, rent - seeking, and the deliberation council
by Campos, Jose Edgardo & Lien, Donald & DEC
- 1320 Capital structures in developing countries : evidence from ten countries
by Demirguc - Kunt, Asli & Maksimovic, Vojislav & DEC
- 1319 The financial system and public enterprise reform : concepts and cases
by Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross & DEC
- 1318 Exchange-rate-based stabilization in Argentina and Chile : a fresh look
by Kiguel, Miguel A. & Liviatan, Nissan
- 1317 Estimating the efficiency gains of debt restructuring
by Bulow, Jeremy & Rogoff, Kenneth & Ning S. Zhu & DEC & a descri & Buyback arrangements
- 1316 Preserving the CFA Zone : macroeconomic coordination after the devaluation
by Devarajan, Shantayanan & Walton, Michael & DEC
- 1315 Global tradable carbon permits, participation incentives, and transfers
by Larsen, Bjorn & Shah, Anwar
- 1314 The significance of the"Europe agreements"for Central European industrial exports
by Kaminski, Bartlomiej & DEC
- 1313 New estimates of total factor productivity growth for developing and industrial countries
by Nehru, Vikram & Dhareshwar, Ashok & DEC
- 1312 The new wave of private capital inflows : push or pull?
by Fernandez-Arias, Eduardo & DEC
- 1311 The supply response to exchange rate reform in sub-Saharan Africa (empirical evidence)
by Rouis, Mustapha & Razzak, Weshah & Mollinedo, Carlos
- 1310 China's economic reforms : pointers for other economies in transition?
by Justin Yifu Lin & Fang Cai & Zhou Li
- 1309 Is demand for polluting goods manageable? an econometric study of car ownership and use in Mexico
by Eskeland, Gunnar S. & Feyzioglu, Tarhan N. & DEC
- 1308 Ownership and corporate control in Poland : why state firms defied the odds
by Pinto, Brian & van Wijnbergen, Sweder
- 1307 How taxation affects foreign direct investment (country - specific evidence)
by Joosung Jun
- 1306 Capital flows and long-term equilibrium real exchange rates in Chile
by Elbadawi, Ibrahim A. & Soto, Raimundo
- 1305 Information and price determination under mass privatization
by Shafik, Nemat
- 1304 Informal gold mining and mercury pollution in Brazil
by Biller, Dan & DEC
- 1303 Conflict and cooperation in managing international water resources
by Barret, Scott & DEC
- 1302 Sustainability : ethical foundations and economic properties
by Asheim, Geir B.
- 1301 Estimating the health effects of air pollutants : a method with an application to Jakarta
by Ostro, Bart
- 13009 Policy, Research working paper series : numbers 1248-1280
- 1300 Dynamic response to external shocks in classical and Keynesian economies
by Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus & Serven, Luis & DEC
- 1299 Fiscal policy in classical and Keynesian open economies
by Schmidt-Hebbel, Klaus & Serven, Luis
- 1298 Capital goods imports, the real exchange rate, and the current account
by Serven, Luis
- 1297 How relative prices affect fuel use patterns in manufacturing : plant - level evidence from Chile
by Guo, Charles C. & Tybout, James R.
- 1296 Earnings-related mandatory pensions : concepts for design
by Valdes-Prieto, Salvador & DEC
- 1295 Why higher fiscal spending persists when a boom in primary commodities ends
by Boccara, Bruno & DEC
- 1294 Regulations, institutions, and economic performance : the political economy of the Philippines'telecommunications sector
by Esfahani, Hadi Salehi & DEC
- 1293 Product standards, imperfect competition and completion of the market in the European Union
by Harrison, Glenn & Rutherford, Thomas & Tarr, David & DEC
- 1292 Service as a major source of growth in Russia and other former Soviet states
by Easterly, William & de Melo, Martha & Ofer, Gur & DEC
- 1291 A survey of Viet Nam's legal framework in transition
by Lichtenstein, Natalie G. & DEC
- 1290 Oil price instability, hedging, and an oil stabilization fund : the case of Venezuela
by Claessens, Stijn & Varangis, Panos & DEC
- 1289 A fiscal needs approach to equalization transfers in a decentralized federation
by Shah, Anwar & DEC
- 1288 The public finance of infrastructure : issues and options
by Swaroop, Vinaya & DEC
- 1287 Unstable inflation and seignorage revenues in Latin America : How many times can the government fool people?
by Morisset, Jacques & DEC
- 1286 Economic transformation and the fiscal crisis : a critical look at the Central European experience of the 1990s
by Barbone, Luca & Marchetti, Domenico Jr. & DEC
- 1285 Capital fundamentalism, economic development, and economic growth
by King, Robert G. & Levine, Ross & DEC
- 1284 The Soviet economic decline : historical and republican data
by Easterly, William & Fischer, Stanley & DEC
- 1283 Interest rates in open economies : real interest rate parity, exchange rates, and country risk in industrial and developing countries
by Das Gupta, Dipak & Das Gupta, Bejoy & DEC
- 1282 Copper and the negative price of storage
by Larson, Donald Frederick & DEC
- 1281 Human and physical infrastructure : public investment and pricing policies in developing countries
by Jimenez, Emmanuel & DEC
- 1280 The economic impact of export controls : an application to Mongolian cashmere and Romanian wood products
by Takacs, Wendy E.
- 1279 Optimal hedging strategy revisited : acknowledging the existence of nonstationary economic timeseries
by Ying Qian & Duncan, Ronald & DEC
- 1278 The role of regulation and commitment in the development of telecommunications in Chile
by Galal, Ahmed & DEC
- 1277 Private trader response to market liberalization in Tanzania's cashew nut industry
by Jaffee, Steven & DEC
- 1276 Is there persistence in the growth of manufactured exports? Evidence from newly industrializing countries
by Mody, Ashoka & Yilmaz, Kamil & DEC
- 1275 Female - headed households, poverty, and the welfare of children in urban Brazil
by Barros, Ricardo & Fox, Louise & Mendonca, Rosane & DEC
- 1274 The new trade theory and its relevance for developing countries
by Alam, Asad & DEC
- 1273 Desired fertility and the impact of population policies
by Pritchett, Lant H. & DEC
- 1272 The value of superfund cleanups : evidence from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency decisions
by Gupta, Shreekant & Van Houtven, George & Cropper, Maureen L. & DEC
- 1271 Measuring the effect of external shocks and the policy response to them : empirical methodology applied to the Philippines
by McCarthy, F. Desmond & Neary, J. Peter & Zanalda, Giovanni & DEC