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What did the Maoists ever do for us ? education and marriage of women exposed to civil conflict in Nepal

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  • Valente, Christine

Abstract

Between 1996 and 2006, Nepal experienced violent civil conflict as a consequence of a Maoist insurgency, which many argue also brought about an increase in female empowerment. This paper exploits within and between-district variation in the intensity of violence to estimate the impact of conflict intensity on two key areas of the life of women in Nepal, namely education and marriage. Overall conflict intensity had a small, positive effect on female educational attainment, whereas abductions by Maoists had the reverse effect. Male schooling was not significantly affected by either conflict measure. Conflict intensity and Maoist abductions during school age both increased the probability of early female marriage, but exposure to conflict during marriageable age does not appear to have affected women's long-term marriage probability.

Suggested Citation

  • Valente, Christine, 2011. "What did the Maoists ever do for us ? education and marriage of women exposed to civil conflict in Nepal," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5741, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5741
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    Cited by:

    1. Martin Rama & Tara Béteille & Yue Li & Pradeep K. Mitra & John Lincoln Newman, 2015. "Addressing Inequality in South Asia," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 20395, December.
    2. Krafft,Caroline Gould & Arango,Diana Jimena & Rubin,Amalia Hadas & Jocelyn,Kelly, 2022. "Conflict and Girl Child Marriage : Global Evidence," Policy Research Working Paper Series 10135, The World Bank.
    3. Margarita Pivovarova & Eik Leong Swee, 2012. "Quantifying the Microeconomic Effects of War: How Much Can Panel Data Help?," HiCN Working Papers 116, Households in Conflict Network.
    4. Tilman Br�ck & Patricia Justino & Philip Verwimp & Andrew Tedesco & Alexandra Avdeenko, 2013. "Measuring Conflict Exposure in Micro-Level Surveys," HiCN Working Papers 153, Households in Conflict Network.
    5. Mayra Buvinic & Monica Das Gupta & Ursula Casabonne & Philip Verwimp, 2013. "Violent Conflict and Gender Inequality: An Overview," The World Bank Research Observer, World Bank, vol. 28(1), pages 110-138, February.
    6. Luna K.C. & Gemma Van Der Haar & Dorothea Hilhorst, 2017. "Changing Gender Role: Women’s Livelihoods, Conflict and Post-conflict Security in Nepal," Journal of Asian Security and International Affairs, , vol. 4(2), pages 175-195, August.
    7. Philip Verwimp & Jan Van Bavel, 2014. "Schooling, Violent Conflict, and Gender in Burundi," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank, vol. 28(2), pages 384-411.
    8. Orsola Torrisi, 2022. "Wedding Amidst War? Armed Conflict and Female Teen Marriage in Azerbaijan," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 38(5), pages 1243-1275, December.
    9. Shemyakina, Olga N., 2011. "The labor market, education and armed conflict in Tajikistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5738, The World Bank.
    10. Olga Shemyakina, 2013. "Patterns in Female Age at First Marriage and Tajik Armed Conflict [Les évolutions de l’âge des femmes au premier mariage et le conflit armé Tadjike]," European Journal of Population, Springer;European Association for Population Studies, vol. 29(3), pages 303-343, August.
    11. Tilman Brück & Patricia Justino & Philip Verwimp & Alexandra Avdeenko & Andrew Tedesco, 2016. "Measuring Violent Conflict in Micro-level Surveys: Current Practices and Methodological Challenges," The World Bank Research Observer, World Bank, vol. 31(1), pages 29-58.
    12. Domingues, Patrick, 2011. "Civil War Exposure And School Enrolment:Evidence From The Mozambican Civil War," NEPS Working Papers 1/2011, Network of European Peace Scientists.
    13. Vani S. Kulkarni & Manoj Pandey & Raghav Gaiha, 2013. "MDGs and gender inequality," Global Development Institute Working Paper Series 18813, GDI, The University of Manchester.
    14. Gómez Soler, Silvia C., 2016. "Educational achievement at schools: Assessing the effect of the civil conflict using a pseudo-panel of schools," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 91-106.
    15. François Libois, 2016. "Households in Times of War : Adaptation Strategies during the Nepal Civil War," Working Papers 1603, University of Namur, Department of Economics.
    16. Yara Jarallah, 2022. "The ties that bind? Marriage formation, consanguinity and war in Lebanon and Palestine," Journal of Population Research, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 97-132, March.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Population Policies; Education and Society; Post Conflict Reconstruction; Primary Education; Rural Poverty Reduction;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I20 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - General
    • J12 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

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