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Schooling, violent conflict, and gender in Burundi

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  • Verwimp, Philip
  • Van Bavel, Jan

Abstract

This paper investigates the effect of exposure to violent conflict on human capital accumulation in Burundi. It combines a nationwide household survey with secondary sources on the location and timing of the conflict. Only 20 percent of the birth cohorts studied (1971-1986) completed primary education. Depending on the specification, the probability of completing primary schooling for a boy exposed to violent conflict declines by 7 to 17 percentage points compared to a nonexposed boy, with a decline of 11 percentage points in the preferred specification. In addition, exposure to violent conflict reduces the gender gap in schooling, but only for girls from nonpoor households. Forced displacement is one of the channels through which conflict affects schooling. The results are robust to various specifications and estimation methods.

Suggested Citation

  • Verwimp, Philip & Van Bavel, Jan, 2013. "Schooling, violent conflict, and gender in Burundi," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6418, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:6418
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    8. Domenico Rossignoli & Sara Balestri & Simona Beretta & Mario A. Maggioni, 2019. "International Child Sponsorship and School Performance: Evidence from Goma (DRC)," DISEIS - Quaderni del Dipartimento di Economia internazionale, delle istituzioni e dello sviluppo dis1905, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimento di Economia internazionale, delle istituzioni e dello sviluppo (DISEIS).
    9. Bertoni, Eleonora & Di Maio, Michele & Molini, Vasco & Nisticò, Roberto, 2019. "Education is forbidden: The effect of the Boko Haram conflict on education in North-East Nigeria," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 141(C).
    10. Ceren Baysan & Marshall Burke & Felipe González & Solomon Hsiang & Edward Miguel, 2018. "Economic and Non-Economic Factors in Violence: Evidence from Organized Crime, Suicides and Climate in Mexico," NBER Working Papers 24897, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. La Mattina, Giulia, 2018. "How persistent is the effect of conflict on primary education? Long-run evidence from the Rwandan genocide," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 163(C), pages 32-35.
    12. Oyvat, Cem & Tekgüç, Hasan, 2019. "Ethnic fractionalization, conflict and educational development in Turkey," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 41-52.
    13. Zuilkowski, Stephanie Simmons & Marty, Ana H., 2021. "Student perceptions of school safety and student learning outcomes in a context of protracted conflict," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 82(C).
    14. Fransen, Sonja & Ruiz, Isabel & Vargas-Silva, Carlos, 2017. "Return Migration and Economic Outcomes in the Conflict Context," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 95(C), pages 196-210.
    15. Domingues, Patrick, 2011. "Civil War Exposure And School Enrolment:Evidence From The Mozambican Civil War," NEPS Working Papers 1/2011, Network of European Peace Scientists.
    16. Singh, Prakarsh & Shemyakina, Olga N., 2016. "Gender-differential effects of terrorism on education: The case of the 1981–1993 Punjab insurgency," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 54(C), pages 185-210.
    17. Norling, Johannes, 2020. "Education and employment following apartheid protests," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 77(C).
    18. Oyvat, Cem & Tekgüç, Hasan, 2017. "Double squeeze on educational development: land inequality and ethnic conflict in Southeastern Turkey," Greenwich Papers in Political Economy 16812, University of Greenwich, Greenwich Political Economy Research Centre.
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    20. Weldeegzie, Samuel G., 2017. "Growing-up Unfortunate: War and Human Capital in Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 474-489.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Post Conflict Reconstruction; Education For All; Population Policies; Rural Poverty Reduction; Primary Education;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

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