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Education and conflict recovery : the case of Timor Leste


  • Justino, Patricia
  • Leone, Marinella
  • Salardi, Paola


The Timor Leste secession conflict lasted for 25 years. Its last wave of violence in 1999, following the withdrawal of Indonesian troops, generated massive displacement and destruction with widespread consequences for the economic and social development of the country. This paper analyzes the impact of the conflict on the level and access to education of boys and girls in Timor Leste. The authors examine the short-term impact of the 1999 violence on school attendance and grade deficit rates in 2001, and the longer-term impact of the conflict on primary school completion of cohorts of children observed in 2007. They compare the educational impact of the 1999 wave of violence with the impact of other periods of high-intensity violence during the 25 years of Indonesian occupation. The short-term effects of the conflict are mixed. In the longer term, the analysis finds a strong negative impact of the conflict on primary school completion among boys of school age exposed to peaks of violence during the 25-year long conflict. The effect is stronger for boys attending the last three grades of primary school. This result shows a substantial loss of human capital among young males in Timor Leste since the early 1970s, resulting from household investment trade-offs between education and economic survival.

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  • Justino, Patricia & Leone, Marinella & Salardi, Paola, 2011. "Education and conflict recovery : the case of Timor Leste," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5774, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5774

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    1. repec:ebd:wpaper:152 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Tilman Brück & Patricia Justino & Philip Verwimp & Alexandra Avdeenko & Andrew Tedesco, 2016. "Measuring Violent Conflict in Micro-level Surveys: Current Practices and Methodological Challenges," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 31(1), pages 29-58.
    3. Bove, Vincenzo & Gavrilova, Evelina, 2014. "Income and Livelihoods in the War in Afghanistan," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 113-131.
    4. Tilman Brück & Patricia Justino & Philip Verwimp & Andrew Tedesco & Alexandra Avdeenko, 2013. "Measuring Conflict Exposure in Micro-Level Surveys," HiCN Working Papers 153, Households in Conflict Network.
    5. Mamoon, Dawood, 2017. "Building Peace through Education: Case of India and Pakistan Conflict," MPRA Paper 82749, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Domingues, Patrick, 2011. "Civil War Exposure And School Enrolment:Evidence From The Mozambican Civil War," NEPS Working Papers 1/2011, Network of European Peace Scientists.
    7. Patricia Justino & Ivan Cardona & Rebecca Mitchell & Catherine Müller, 2012. "Quantifying the Impact of Women’s Participation in Post-Conflict Economic Recovery," HiCN Working Papers 131, Households in Conflict Network.
    8. Alvaro Morales & Prakarsh Singh, 2016. "“Face the bullet, spare the rod?” Evidence from the aftermath of the Shining Path Insurgency," HiCN Working Papers 191 updated, Households in Conflict Network.
    9. Olga N. Shemyakina, 2011. "Labour Market, Education and Armed Conflict in Tajikistan," HiCN Working Papers 106, Households in Conflict Network.
    10. Patricia Justino, 2012. "Nutrition, Governance and Violence: A Framework for the Analysis of Resilience and Vulnerability to Food Insecurity in Contexts of Violent Conflict," HiCN Working Papers 132, Households in Conflict Network.
    11. Prakarsh Singh & Alvaro Morales, 2015. "The Effect of Civil Conflict on Child Abuse: Evidence from Peru," NCID Working Papers 04/2015, Navarra Center for International Development, University of Navarra.
    12. Shemyakina, Olga N., 2011. "The labor market, education and armed conflict in Tajikistan," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5738, The World Bank.

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    Adolescent Health; Youth and Governance; Education For All; Primary Education; Post Conflict Reconstruction;

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