IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/spr/izaldv/v1y2012i1p1-2810.1186-2193-9020-1-8.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Remittances and labor supply in post-conflict Tajikistan

Author

Listed:
  • Patricia Justino

    ()

  • Olga Shemyakina

    ()

Abstract

We analyze the impact of remittances on the labor supply of men and women in post-conflict Tajikistan. Individuals from remittance-receiving households are less likely to participate in the labor market and supply fewer hours when they do. The results are robust to different measures of remittances and migration. When we differentiate between regions by their exposure to the 1992-1998 armed conflict, we observe that the negative effect of remittances on the labor supply of women is primarily driven by women from the regions more exposed to fighting and destruction during the war. Remittances have a similar negative effect on the supply of labor hours worked across all regions, both for men and women. Further, in the households that do not have migrants, remittances have no effect on the labor supply by males, suggesting that migration and not remittances is the primary factor explaining male labor force participation. JEL codes: J22, Time Allocation and Labor Supply; F22, International Migration; F24, Remittances; O12, Microeconomics Analyses of Household Behavior Copyright Justino and Shemyakina; licensee Springer. 2012

Suggested Citation

  • Patricia Justino & Olga Shemyakina, 2012. "Remittances and labor supply in post-conflict Tajikistan," IZA Journal of Labor & Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 1(1), pages 1-28, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:izaldv:v:1:y:2012:i:1:p:1-28:10.1186/2193-9020-1-8
    DOI: 10.1186/2193-9020-1-8
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1186/2193-9020-1-8
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Manuel Fern�ndez & Ana Mar�a Ib��ez & Ximena Pe�a, 2014. "Adjusting the Labour Supply to Mitigate Violent Shocks: Evidence from Rural Colombia," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(8), pages 1135-1155, August.
    2. Chang, Hongqin & Dong, Xiao-yuan & MacPhail, Fiona, 2011. "Labor Migration and Time Use Patterns of the Left-behind Children and Elderly in Rural China," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(12), pages 2199-2210.
    3. Azzarri, Carlo & Zezza, Alberto, 2011. "International migration and nutritional outcomes in Tajikistan," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 54-70, February.
    4. Patricia Justino, 2010. "War and Poverty," HiCN Working Papers 81, Households in Conflict Network.
    5. Binzel, Christine & Assaad, Ragui, 2011. "Egyptian men working abroad: Labour supply responses by the women left behind," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(S1), pages 98-114.
    6. Nidhiya Menon & Yana van der Meulen Rodgers, 2010. "War and Women’s Work: Evidence from the Conflict in Nepal," Working Papers 19, Brandeis University, Department of Economics and International Businesss School.
    7. Patricia Justino, 2009. "Poverty and Violent Conflict: A Micro-Level Perspective on the Causes and Duration of Warfare," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 46(3), pages 315-333, May.
    8. Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes & Susan Pozo, 2006. "Migration, Remittances, and Male and Female Employment Patterns," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 222-226, May.
    9. Mckenzie, David & Rapoport, Hillel, 2007. "Network effects and the dynamics of migration and inequality: Theory and evidence from Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 1-24, September.
    10. Cameron,A. Colin & Trivedi,Pravin K., 2005. "Microeconometrics," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521848053, June.
    11. Amy Lynne Damon, 2010. "Agricultural Land Use and Asset Accumulation in Migrant Households: the Case of El Salvador," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(1), pages 162-189.
    12. Mathias Czaika & Krisztina Kis-Katos, 2009. "Civil Conflict and Displacement: Village-Level Determinants of Forced Migration in Aceh," Journal of Peace Research, Peace Research Institute Oslo, vol. 46(3), pages 399-418, May.
    13. Tilman Bruck & Kati Schindler, 2009. "The Impact of Violent Conflicts on Households: What Do We Know and What Should We Know about War Widows?," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(3), pages 289-309.
    14. Lori A. Beaman, 2012. "Social Networks and the Dynamics of Labour Market Outcomes: Evidence from Refugees Resettled in the U.S," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 79(1), pages 128-161.
    15. Alexei P Kireyev, 2006. "The Macroeconomics of Remittances; The Case of Tajikistan," IMF Working Papers 06/2, International Monetary Fund.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Peter Huber & Ulugbek Rahimov, 2017. "The Self-Selection of Workers to the Formal and Informal in Transition Economies: Evidence from Tajikistan," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 67(2), pages 140-164, April.
    2. Fatma MABROUK & Jacob ODUOR & Abebe SHIMELES, 2015. "Remittances and Youth Labor Market Participation in Africa," Cahiers du GREThA (2007-2019) 2015-32, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée (GREThA).
    3. Brück, Tilman & Esenaliev, Damir & Kroeger, Antje & Kudebayeva, Alma & Mirkasimov, Bakhrom & Steiner, Susan, 2014. "Household survey data for research on well-being and behavior in Central Asia," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 819-835.
    4. Azizbek Tokhirov, 2018. "Remittances and subjective well-being of the left behinds in Tajikistan," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 38(4), pages 1735-1747.
    5. Hayk Karapetyan, 2017. "Cross-Country Wage Differentials," Working Papers 2, Central Bank of the Republic of Armenia.
    6. Anghel, Remus Gabriel & Piracha, Matloob & Randazzo, Teresa, 2015. "Migrants' Remittances: Channelling Globalization," IZA Discussion Papers 9516, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Akramov, Kamiljon T. & Shreedhar, Ganga, 2012. "Economic development, external shocks, and food security in Tajikistan:," IFPRI discussion papers 1163, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    8. Tamar Khitarishvili, 2016. "Gender Dimensions of Inequality in the Countries of Central Asia, South Caucasus, and Western CIS," Economics Working Paper Archive wp_858, Levy Economics Institute.
    9. Patricia Justino & Ivan Cardona & Rebecca Mitchell & Catherine Müller, 2012. "Quantifying the Impact of Women’s Participation in Post-Conflict Economic Recovery," HiCN Working Papers 131, Households in Conflict Network.
    10. Köllner, Sebastian, 2013. "Remittances and educational attainment: Evidence from Tajikistan," Discussion Paper Series 124, Julius Maximilian University of Würzburg, Chair of Economic Order and Social Policy.
    11. Sharma, Hari, 2020. "The effect of emigration and remittances on labour supply of the left-behind: Evidence from Nepal," MPRA Paper 102091, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Batsaikhan, Uuriintuya & Dabrowski, Marek, 2017. "Central Asia — twenty-five years after the breakup of the USSR," Russian Journal of Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 296-320.
    13. Kröger, Antje & Meier, Kristina, 2011. "Employment and the Financial Crisis: Evidence from Tajikistan," Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Berlin 2011 50, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
    14. Ibrahim Sirkeci & Jeffrey H. Cohen & Dilip Ratha, 2012. "Migration and Remittances during the Global Financial Crisis and Beyond," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13092, November.
    15. Kamalbek Karymshakov & Burulcha Sulaimanova, 2017. "Migration impact on left-behind women’s labour participation and time-use: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan," WIDER Working Paper Series 119, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    16. Patricia Justino & Marinella Leone & Paola Salardi, 2011. "Education and Conflict Recovery: The Case of Timor Leste," HiCN Working Papers 100, Households in Conflict Network.
    17. Schneider, Friedrich & Khan, Shabeer & Baharom Abdul Hamid & Khan, Abidullah, 2019. "Does the tax undermine the effect of remittances on shadow economy?," Economics Discussion Papers 2019-67, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    18. Atamanov, Aziz, 2015. "Heterogeneous impact of traveling to Western countries on gender norms in Middle East and North Africa countries," MPRA Paper 68122, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    19. Yashodhan Ghorpade, 2012. "Coping Strategies in Natural Disasters and under Conflict: A Review of Household Responses and Notes for Public Policy," HiCN Working Papers 136, Households in Conflict Network.
    20. Kristina Meier, 2014. "Low-Skilled Labor Migration in Tajikistan: Determinants and Effects on Expenditure Patterns," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1433, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    21. Kamalbek Karymshakov & Burulcha Sulaimanova, 2017. "Migration impact on left-behind women's labour participation and time-use: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2017-119, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    22. Piracha, Matloob & Randazzo, Teresa & Vadean, Florin, 2013. "Remittances and Occupational Outcomes of the Household Members Left-Behind," IZA Discussion Papers 7582, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    23. Ivlevs, Artjoms, 2016. "Remittances and Informal Work," IZA Discussion Papers 10196, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    24. Pascal Jaupart, 2019. "No country for young men: International migration and left‐behind children in Tajikistan," Economics of Transition and Institutional Change, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 27(3), pages 579-614, July.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Murard, Elie, 2016. "Consumption and Leisure: The Welfare Impact of Migration on Family Left Behind," IZA Discussion Papers 10305, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Tilman Brück & Patricia Justino & Philip Verwimp & Andrew Tedesco & Alexandra Avdeenko, 2013. "Measuring Conflict Exposure in Micro-Level Surveys," HiCN Working Papers 153, Households in Conflict Network.
    3. Sylvie Démurger & Shi Li, 2013. "Migration, Remittances, and Rural Employment Patterns: Evidence from China," Research in Labor Economics, in: Corrado Giulietti & Konstantinos Tatsiramos & Klaus F. Zimmermann (ed.), Labor Market Issues in China, volume 37, pages 31-63, Emerald Publishing Ltd.
    4. repec:hal:wpaper:halshs-00744438 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Xu, Hao, 2017. "The time use pattern and labour supply of the left behind spouse and children in rural China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(S), pages 77-101.
    6. Mayra Buvinic & Monica Das Gupta & Ursula Casabonne & Philip Verwimp, 2013. "Violent Conflict and Gender Inequality: An Overview," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 28(1), pages 110-138, February.
    7. Zhu, Zhen & Zhou, Jun & Li, Bowei & Shen, Yueqin & Zhang, Yaoqi, 2020. "How feminization of forest management drives households' adoption of technologies: Evidence from non-timber forest products operations in China," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(C).
    8. Brück, Tilman & Justino, Patricia & Verwimp, Philip & Avdeenko, Alexandra, 2010. "Identifying Conflict and Violence in Micro-Level Surveys," IZA Discussion Papers 5067, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. Kamalbek Karymshakov & Burulcha Sulaimanova, 2017. "Migration impact on left-behind women’s labour participation and time-use: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan," WIDER Working Paper Series 119, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    10. George Berulava, 2019. "Migration and labor supply in Georgia: an empirical study," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 9(3), pages 395-419, September.
    11. Tilman Brück & Patricia Justino & Philip Verwimp & Alexandra Avdeenko & Andrew Tedesco, 2016. "Measuring Violent Conflict in Micro-level Surveys: Current Practices and Methodological Challenges," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 31(1), pages 29-58.
    12. Kroeger, Antje & Anderson, Kathryn H., 2014. "Remittances and the human capital of children: New evidence from Kyrgyzstan during revolution and financial crisis, 2005–2009," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 770-785.
    13. Marjan Petreski & Nikica Mojsoska-Blazevski & Maja Ristovska & Edi Smokvarski, 2014. "Youth Self-Employment in Households Receiving Remittances in Macedonia," Working Papers PMMA 2014-08, PEP-PMMA.
    14. Simone Bertoli & Francesca Marchetta, 2014. "Migration, Remittances and Poverty in Ecuador," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(8), pages 1067-1089, August.
    15. Kalaj, Ermira Hoxha, 2010. "Remittances and Human Capital Investment: Evidence from Albania," MPRA Paper 49210, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    16. Ana María Ibáñez Londoño & Juan Carlos Muñoz Mora & Philip Verwimp, 2013. "Abandoning Coffee under the Threat of Violence and the Presence of Illicit Crops. Evidence from Colombia," Documentos CEDE 011465, Universidad de los Andes - CEDE.
    17. John Gibson & David McKenzie & Steven Stillman, 2011. "The Impacts of International Migration on Remaining Household Members: Omnibus Results from a Migration Lottery Program," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 93(4), pages 1297-1318, November.
    18. Mattia Makovec & Ririn S Purnamasari & Matteo Sandi & Astrid R Savitri, 2018. "Intended versus unintended consequences of migration restriction policies: evidence from a natural experiment in Indonesia," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 18(4), pages 915-950.
    19. Görlich, Dennis & Omar Mahmoud, Toman & Trebesch, Christoph, 2007. "Explaining labour market inactivity in migrant-sending families: Housework, hammock, or higher education?," Kiel Working Papers 1391, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    20. Valerie Mueller & Chiara Kovarik & Kathryn Sproule & Agnes Quisumbing, 2015. "Migration, Gender, and Farming Systems in Asia: Evidence, Data, and Knowledge Gaps," Working Papers id:7478, eSocialSciences.
    21. Eva-Maria Egger & Julie Litchfield, 2019. "Following in their footsteps: an analysis of the impact of successive migration on rural household welfare in Ghana," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 9(1), pages 1-22, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Migration; Remittances; Labor markets; Tajikistan; Gender; Armed conflict;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • J22 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Time Allocation and Labor Supply
    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • F24 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Remittances
    • O12 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Microeconomic Analyses of Economic Development

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:izaldv:v:1:y:2012:i:1:p:1-28:10.1186/2193-9020-1-8. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.