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Average and marginal returns to upper secondary schooling in Indonesia

  • Carneiro, Pedro
  • Lokshin, Michael
  • Ridao-Cano, Cristobal
  • Umapathi, Nithin

This paper estimates average and marginal returns to schooling in Indonesia using a non-parametric selection model estimated by local instrumental variables, and data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey. The analysis finds that the return to upper secondary schooling varies widely across individual: it can be as high as 50 percent per year of schooling for those very likely to enroll in upper secondary schooling, or as low as -10 percent for those very unlikely to do so. Returns to the marginal student (14 percent) are well below those for the average student attending upper secondary schooling (27 percent).

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Paper provided by The World Bank in its series Policy Research Working Paper Series with number 5878.

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Date of creation: 01 Nov 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5878
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  1. Pedro Carneiro & James J. Heckman, 2002. "The Evidence on Credit Constraints in Post--secondary Schooling," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(482), pages 705-734, October.
  2. Pedro Carneiro & James J. Heckman & Edward J. Vytlacil, 2009. "Evaluating Marginal Policy Changes and the Average Effect of Treatment for Individuals at the Margin," NBER Working Papers 15211, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. James Heckman & Pedro Carneiro, 2003. "Human Capital Policy," NBER Working Papers 9495, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Lorraine Dearden & Leslie McGranahan & Leslie McGranahan & Barbara Sianesi, 2004. "Returns to Education for the Marginal Learner: Evidence from the BCS70," CEE Discussion Papers 0045, Centre for the Economics of Education, LSE.
  5. James J. Heckman & Edward Vytlacil, 2005. "Structural Equations, Treatment Effects and Econometric Policy Evaluation," NBER Working Papers 11259, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Pedro Carneiro & James J. Heckman & Edward J. Vytlacil, 2010. "Estimating Marginal Returns to Education," NBER Working Papers 16474, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Esther Duflo, 2002. "The Medium Run Effects of Educational Expansion: Evidence from a Large School Construction Program in Indonesia," NBER Working Papers 8710, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Pedro Carneiro & Sokbae (Simon) Lee, 2009. "Estimating distributions of potential outcomes using local instrumental variables with an application to changes in college enrollment and wage inequality," CeMMAP working papers CWP01/09, Centre for Microdata Methods and Practice, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  9. Belton Fleisher & Xiaojun Wang & Haizheng Li & Shi Li, 2009. "Access to Higher Education and Inequality: The Chinese Experiment," Working Papers 09-02, Ohio State University, Department of Economics.
  10. Bjorklund, Anders & Moffitt, Robert, 1987. "The Estimation of Wage Gains and Welfare Gains in Self-selection," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(1), pages 42-49, February.
  11. Carneiro, Pedro & Lee, Sokbae, 2010. "Trends in Quality Adjusted Skill Premia in the US, 1960-2000," CEPR Discussion Papers 8108, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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