Returns to investment in education : a further update
Returns to investment in education based on human capital theory have been estimated since the late 1950s. In the 40-plus year history of estimates of returns to investment in education, there have been several reviews of the empirical results in attempts to establish patterns. Many more estimates from a wide variety of countries, including over time evidence, and estimates based on new econometric techniques, reaffirm the importance of human capital theory. The suthors review and present the latest estimates and patterns as found in the literature at the turn of the century. However, because the availability of rate of return estimates has grown exponentially, the authors include a new section on the need for selectivity in comparing returns to investment in education and establishing related patterns.
|Date of creation:||30 Sep 2002|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433|
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: http://www.worldbank.org/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Schultz, Theodore W, 1975. "The Value of the Ability to Deal with Disequilibria," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 13(3), pages 827-46, September.
- Colm Harmon & Ian Walker, 1996.
"The marginal and average returns to schooling,"
IFS Working Papers
W96/11, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Colm Harmon & Ian Walker, 1996. "The Marginal and Average Returns to Schooling"," Working Papers 96/20, University College Dublin, Economics Department.
- Colm Harmon & Ian Walker, 1996. "The marginal and average returns to schooling," Working Papers 199620, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
- Colm Harmon & Ian Walker, 1997. "The Marginal and Average Returns to Schooling," Keele Department of Economics Discussion Papers (1995-2001) 97/07, Department of Economics, Keele University.
- Simon Appleton & Arsène Balihuta, 1996.
"Education and agricultural productivity: evidence from Uganda,"
CSAE Working Paper Series
1996-05, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Simon Appleton & Arsene Balihuta, 1996. "Education and agricultural productivity: Evidence from Uganda," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(3), pages 415-444.
- Simon Appleton and Arsene Balihuta, 1996. "Education and agricultural productivity: evidence from Uganda," Economics Series Working Papers WPS/1996-05, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
- Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 1998.
"Does the labour market explain lower female schooling in India?,"
Journal of Development Studies,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(1), pages 39-65.
- Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 1997. "Does the labour market explain lower female schooling in India?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 6715, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Geeta Gandhi Kingdon, 1997. "Does the Labour Market Explain Lower Female Schooling in India?," STICERD - Development Economics Papers - From 2008 this series has been superseded by Economic Organisation and Public Policy Discussion Papers 01, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
- Tansel, A., 1992.
"Wage Employment, Earnings and Returns to Schooling for Men and Women in Turkey,"
661, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Tansel, Aysit, 1994. "Wage employment, earnings and returns to schooling for men and women in Turkey," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 305-320.
- Ichino, Andrea & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 1998.
"Lower and Upper Bounds of Returns to Schooling: An Exercise in IV estimation with Different Instruments,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
2007, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Ichino, Andrea & Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf, 1999. "Lower and upper bounds of returns to schooling: An exercise in IV estimation with different instruments," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(4-6), pages 889-901, April.
- David Card, 2000.
"Estimating the Return to Schooling: Progress on Some Persistent Econometric Problems,"
NBER Working Papers
7769, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Card, David, 2001. "Estimating the Return to Schooling: Progress on Some Persistent Econometric Problems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 69(5), pages 1127-60, September.
- Daron Acemoglu & Joshua Angrist, 2001. "How Large are Human-Capital Externalities? Evidence from Compulsory-Schooling Laws," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15, pages 9-74 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Griffin, Peter & Edwards, Alejandra Cox, 1993. "Rates of return to education in Brazil: Do labor market conditions matter?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 245-256, September.
- Alan Krueger & Orley Ashenfelter, 1992.
"Estimates of the Economic Return to Schooling from a New Sample of Twins,"
NBER Working Papers
4143, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ashenfelter, Orley & Krueger, Alan B, 1994. "Estimates of the Economic Returns to Schooling from a New Sample of Twins," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(5), pages 1157-73, December.
- Behrman, Jere R. & Rosenzweig, Mark R., 1999. ""Ability" biases in schooling returns and twins: a test and new estimates," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 159-167, April.
- Bennell, Paul, 1996. "Rates of return to education: Does the conventional pattern prevail in sub-Saharan Africa?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 183-199, January.
- Maluccio, John A., 1998. "Endogeneity of schooling in the wage function," FCND discussion papers 54, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Simon Appleton, 2000.
"Education and health at the household level in sub-Saharan Africa,"
CID Working Papers
33, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
- Appleton, S., 2000. "Education and Health at the Household Level in Sub-Saharan Africa," Papers 33, Chicago - Graduate School of Business.
- Rummery, Sarah & Vella, Francis & Verbeek, Marno, 1999. "Estimating the returns to education for Australian youth via rank-order instrumental variables," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 491-507, November.
- Robert H. Haveman & Barbara L. Wolfe, 1984. "Schooling and Economic Well-Being: The Role of Nonmarket Effects," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 19(3), pages 377-407.
- Christopher A. Pissarides, 2000. "Human Capital and Growth: A Synthesis Report," OECD Development Centre Working Papers 168, OECD Publishing.
- Filer, Randall K. & Jurajda, Stepan & Planovsky, Jan, 1999. "Education and wages in the Czech and Slovak Republics during transition," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 581-593, November.
- Alan B. Krueger & Mikael Lindahl, 2000.
"Education for Growth: Why and For Whom?,"
NBER Working Papers
7591, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2881. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.