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Education and Health at the Household Level in Sub-Saharan Africa


  • Appleton, S.


This paper surveys the microeconomic evidence on the determinants of and returns to education and health in sub-Saharan Africa. A year of education is associated with 3-14% increases wages and productivity. The introduction or removal of user fees can have dramatic effects on take-up of health and education services.

Suggested Citation

  • Appleton, S., 2000. "Education and Health at the Household Level in Sub-Saharan Africa," Papers 33, Chicago - Graduate School of Business.
  • Handle: RePEc:fth:chicbu:33

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Anne Case & Angus Deaton, 1999. "School Inputs and Educational Outcomes in South Africa," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(3), pages 1047-1084.
    2. Binswanger, Hans P. & Khandker, Shahidur R. & Rosenzweig, Mark R., 1993. "How infrastructure and financial institutions affect agricultural output and investment in India," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(2), pages 337-366, August.
    3. Strauss, John, 1986. "Does Better Nutrition Raise Farm Productivity?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(2), pages 297-320, April.
    4. Lavy, Victor & Strauss, John & Thomas, Duncan & de Vreyer, Philippe, 1996. "Quality of health care, survival and health outcomes in Ghana," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 333-357, June.
    5. Lavy, Victor, 1996. "School supply constraints and children's educational outcomes in rural Ghana," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 291-314, December.
    6. Robert J. Barro, 1991. "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 407-443.
    7. Ram, Rati & Singh, Ram D., 1988. "Farm households in rural Burkina Faso: Some evidence on allocative and direct return to schooling, and male-female labor productivity differentials," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 419-424, March.
    8. John Mackinnon, 1995. "Health as an information good: the determinants of child nutrition and mortality during political and economic recovery in Uganda," CSAE Working Paper Series 1995-09, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
    9. Bolduc, Denis & Lacroix, Guy & Muller, Christophe, 1996. "The choice of medical providers in rural Benin: A comparison of discrete choice models," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 477-498, August.
    10. Paul Glewwe & Nauman Ilias, 1996. "The determinants of school attainment in sub-Saharan Africa: A case study of Ghana," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(3), pages 395-413.
    11. Boissiere, M & Knight, J B & Sabot, R H, 1985. "Earnings, Schooling, Ability, and Cognitive Skills," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(5), pages 1016-1030, December.
    12. Germano Mwabu & Martha Ainsworth & Andrew Nyamete, 1993. "Quality of Medical Care and Choice of Medical Treatment in Kenya: An Empirical Analysis," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(4), pages 838-862.
    13. Moock, Peter R, 1981. "Education and Technical Efficiency in Small-Farm Production," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 29(4), pages 723-739, July.
    14. Ainsworth, Martha & Beegle, Kathleen & Nyamete, Andrew, 1996. "The Impact of Women's Schooling on Fertility and Contraceptive Use: A Study of Fourteen Sub-Saharan African Countries," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 10(1), pages 85-122, January.
    15. Akin, John S. & Guilkey, David K. & Hazel?Denton, E., 1995. "Quality of services and demand for health care in Nigeria: A multinomial probit estimation," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 40(11), pages 1527-1537, June.
    16. Benefo, Kofi & Schultz, T Paul, 1996. "Fertility and Child Mortality in Cote d'Ivoire and Ghana," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 10(1), pages 123-158, January.
    17. Anne Case & Angus Deaton, 1998. "School quality and educational outcomes in South Africa," Working Papers 993, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Center for Research on Child Wellbeing..
    18. Bigsten, Arne & Kayizzi-Mugerwa, Steve, 1992. "Adaptation and distress in the urban economy: A study of Kampala households," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(10), pages 1423-1441, October.
    19. Croppenstedt, Andre & Muller, Christophe, 2000. "The Impact of Farmers' Health and Nutritional Status on Their Productivity and Efficiency: Evidence from Ethiopia," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(3), pages 475-502, April.
    20. Arrow, Kenneth J., 1973. "Higher education as a filter," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 193-216, July.
    21. Paul Glewwe & Hanan Jacoby, 1994. "Student Achievement and Schooling Choice in Low-Income Countries: Evidence from Ghana," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 29(3), pages 843-864.
    22. repec:fth:oxesaf:95-9 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. repec:fth:oxesaf:94.12 is not listed on IDEAS
    24. Wim P. M. Vijverberg, 1993. "Educational Investments and Returns for Women and Men in Côte d'Ivoire," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 28(4), pages 933-974.
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    Cited by:

    1. Simon Appleton & Arne Bigsten & Damiano Kulundu Manda, 1999. "Educational expansion and economic decline: returns to education in Kenya, 1978-1995," CSAE Working Paper Series 1999-06, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
    2. Sharada Weir & John Knight, 2000. "Education externalities in rural Ethiopia: evidence from average and stochastic frontier production functions," CSAE Working Paper Series 2000-04, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
    3. Sonia Bhalotra, 2007. "Is Child Work Necessary?," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 69(1), pages 29-55, February.
    4. Abebe Shimeles, 2016. "Can higher education reduce inequality in developing countries?," IZA World of Labor, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA), pages 273-273, July.
    5. Sonia Bhalotra & Claudia Sanhueza, 2004. "Parametric and Semi-parametric Estimations of the Return to Schooling in South Africa," Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings 294, Econometric Society.
    6. Krishnakumar, Jaya & Ballon, Paola, 2008. "Estimating Basic Capabilities: A Structural Equation Model Applied to Bolivia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 992-1010, June.
    7. Michael Clemens, 2004. "The Long Walk to School: International Education Goals in Historical Perspective," Working Papers 37, Center for Global Development.
    8. José Martín & María Herrero & José Campillo, 2014. "An index of education and child health in the Horn of Africa," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 48(2), pages 863-870, March.
    9. Leonardo Becchetti & Giuseppina Gianfreda, 2008. "When consumption heals producers: the effect of fair trade on marginalised producers’ health and productivity," Working Papers 86, ECINEQ, Society for the Study of Economic Inequality.
    10. Reham Rizk, 2016. "Returns to Education: An Updated Comparison from Arab Countries," Working Papers 986, Economic Research Forum, revised Apr 2016.
    11. George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 2004. "Returns to investment in education: a further update," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 111-134.
    12. Mwangi S. Kimenyi & Germano Mwabu & Damiano Kulundu Manda, 2006. "Human Capital Externalities and Private Returns to Education in Kenya," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 32(3), pages 493-513, Summer.
    13. Rajesh Ramachandran, 2012. "Language use in education and primary schooling attainment: evidence from a natural experiment in Ethiopia," Working Papers 2012/34, Institut d'Economia de Barcelona (IEB).
    14. Dendir, Seife, 2013. "Children's Endowment, Schooling, and Work in Ethiopia," WIDER Working Paper Series 086, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    15. Morrissey Oliver & Kavuma Susan Namirembe & Upward Richard, 2015. "Private Returns to Education for Wage-employees and the Self-employed in Uganda," WIDER Working Paper Series 021, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    16. Daren, Conrad, 2007. "Education and Economic Growth: Is There a Link?," MPRA Paper 18176, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2009.
    17. Badiane, Ousmane & Ulimwengu, John, 2009. "The growth-poverty convergence agenda: Optimizing social expenditures to maximize their impact on agricultural labor productivity, growth, and poverty reduction in Africa," IFPRI discussion papers 906, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

    More about this item



    JEL classification:

    • O10 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - General
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration


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