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Average and Marginal Returns to Upper Secondary Schooling in Indonesia

  • Carneiro, Pedro

    ()

    (University College London)

  • Lokshin, Michael

    ()

    (World Bank and Higher School of Economics, Moscow)

  • Ridao-Cano, Cristobal

    ()

    (World Bank)

  • Umapathi, Nithin

    ()

    (World Bank)

This paper estimates average and marginal returns to schooling in Indonesia using a non-parametric selection model. Identification of the model is given by exogenous geographic variation in access to upper secondary schools. We find that the return to upper secondary schooling varies widely across individuals: it can be as high as 50 percent per year of schooling for those very likely to enroll in upper secondary schooling, or as low as -10 percent for those very unlikely to do so. Average returns for the student at the margin are well below those for the average student attending upper secondary schooling.

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Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 6162.

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Length: 40 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp6162
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  1. Belton Fleisher & Xiaojun Wang & Haizheng Li & Shi Li, 2009. "Access to Higher Education and Inequality: The Chinese Experiment," Working Papers 09-02, Ohio State University, Department of Economics.
  2. Lorraine Dearden & Leslie McGranahan & Leslie McGranahan & Barbara Sianesi, 2004. "Returns to Education for the Marginal Learner: Evidence from the BCS70," CEE Discussion Papers 0045, Centre for the Economics of Education, LSE.
  3. Pedro Carneiro & James J. Heckman, 2002. "The Evidence on Credit Constraints in Post--secondary Schooling," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(482), pages 705-734, October.
  4. Pedro Carneiro & James J. Heckman & Edward J. Vytlacil, 2009. "Evaluating Marginal Policy Changes and the Average Effect of Treatment for Individuals at the Margin," NBER Working Papers 15211, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Carneiro, Pedro & Heckman, James J., 2003. "Human Capital Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 821, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. James J. Heckman & Edward Vytlacil, 2005. "Structural Equations, Treatment Effects and Econometric Policy Evaluation," NBER Working Papers 11259, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Esther Duflo, 2002. "The Medium Run Effects of Educational Expansion: Evidence from a Large School Construction Program in Indonesia," NBER Working Papers 8710, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Carneiro, Pedro & Lee, Sokbae, 2010. "Trends in Quality Adjusted Skill Premia in the US, 1960-2000," CEPR Discussion Papers 8108, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  9. Pedro Carneiro & James J. Heckman & Edward J. Vytlacil, 2011. "Estimating Marginal Returns to Education," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 101(6), pages 2754-81, October.
  10. Carneiro, Pedro & Lee, Sokbae, 2009. "Estimating distributions of potential outcomes using local instrumental variables with an application to changes in college enrollment and wage inequality," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 149(2), pages 191-208, April.
  11. Bjorklund, Anders & Moffitt, Robert, 1987. "The Estimation of Wage Gains and Welfare Gains in Self-selection," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 69(1), pages 42-49, February.
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