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When is capital enough to get female enterprises growing ? evidence from a randomized experiment in Ghana

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  • Fafchamps, Marcel
  • McKenzie, David
  • McKenzie, David
  • Quinn, Simon
  • Woodruff, Christopher

Abstract

Standard models of investment predict that credit-constrained firms should grow rapidly when given additional capital, and that how this capital is provided should not affect decisions to invest in the business or consume the capital. The authors randomly gave cash and in-kind grants to male- and female-owned microenterprises in urban Ghana. Their findings cast doubt on the ability of capital alone to stimulate the growth of female microenterprises. First, while the average treatment effects of the in-kind grants are large and positive for both males and females, the gain in profits is almost zero for women with initial profits below the median, suggesting that capital alone is not enough to grow subsistence enterprises owned by women. Second, for women they strongly reject equality of the cash and in-kind grants; only in-kind grants lead to growth in business profits. The results for men also suggest a lower impact of cash, but differences between cash and in-kind grants are less robust. The difference in the effects of cash and in-kind grants is associated more with a lack of self-control than with external pressure. As a result, the manner in which funding is provided affects microenterprise growth.

Suggested Citation

  • Fafchamps, Marcel & McKenzie, David & McKenzie, David & Quinn, Simon & Woodruff, Christopher, 2011. "When is capital enough to get female enterprises growing ? evidence from a randomized experiment in Ghana," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5706, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5706
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    Cited by:

    1. Matthias Doepke & Michèle Tertilt, 2019. "Does female empowerment promote economic development?," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 309-343, December.
    2. Pascaline Dupas & Sarah Green & Anthony Keats & Jonathan Robinson, 2014. "Challenges in Banking the Rural Poor: Evidence from Kenya's Western Province," NBER Chapters, in: African Successes, Volume III: Modernization and Development, pages 63-101, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Caio Piza & Tulio Antonio Cravo & Linnet Taylor & Lauro Gonzalez & Isabel Musse & Isabela Furtado & Ana C. Sierra & Samer Abdelnour, 2016. "The Impact of Business Support Services for Small and Medium Enterprises on Firm Performance in Low‐ and Middle‐Income Countries: A Systematic Review," Campbell Systematic Reviews, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 12(1), pages 1-167.
    4. Abdelkrim Araar & Yesuf Mohammednur Awel & Jonse Bane Boka & Hiywot Menker & Ajebush Shafi & Eleni Yitbarek & Mulatu Zerihun, 2019. "Impact of Credit and Training on Enterprise Performance: Evidence from Urban Ethiopia," Working Papers PMMA 2019-13, PEP-PMMA.
    5. Díaz Serrano, Lluís & Sackey, Frank G., 2016. "Empowering the vulnerable to be entrepreneurs: An empirical test on the efectiveness of the Ghana microfinance policy 2006," Working Papers 2072/267084, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
    6. Macours, Karen & Premand, Patrick & Vakis, Renos, 2012. "Transfers, Diversification and Household Risk Strategies: Experimental evidence with lessons for climate change adaptation," CEPR Discussion Papers 8940, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    7. Dodlova, Marina & Göbel, Kristin & Grimm, Michael & Lay, Jann, 2015. "Constrained firms, not subsistence activities: Evidence on capital returns and accumulation in Peruvian microenterprises," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 94-110.
    8. Diaz-Serrano, Luis & Sackey, Frank Gyimah, 2016. "Empowering the Vulnerable to Be Entrepreneurs: An Empirical Test on the Effectiveness of the Ghana Microfinance Policy 2006," IZA Discussion Papers 10323, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. Shapiro, Jeremy, 2019. "The impact of recipient choice on aid effectiveness," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 137-149.
    10. Lasse Brune & Xavier Giné & Jessica Goldberg & Dean Yang, 2016. "Facilitating Savings for Agriculture: Field Experimental Evidence from Malawi," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64(2), pages 187-220.
    11. Pamela Jakiela & Owen Ozier, 2016. "Does Africa Need a Rotten Kin Theorem? Experimental Evidence from Village Economies," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 83(1), pages 231-268.
    12. Grimm, Michael & Paffhausen, Anna Luisa, 2015. "Do interventions targeted at micro-entrepreneurs and small and medium-sized firms create jobs? A systematic review of the evidence for low and middle income countries," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 67-85.
    13. Keswell, Malcolm & Carter, Michael R., 2014. "Poverty and land redistribution," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 250-261.
    14. Chi Huu Nguyen & Christophe J. Nordman, 2018. "Household Entrepreneurship and Social Networks: Panel Data Evidence from Vietnam," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 54(4), pages 594-618, April.
    15. Christopher Udry, 2012. "Misallocation, Growth and Financial Market Imperfections," Annual Meeting Plenary 2012-3, Society for Economic Dynamics.
    16. Attanasio, Orazio & Augsburg, Britta & De Haas, Ralph & Fitzsimons, Emla & Harmgart, Heike, 2011. "Group lending or individual lending? Evidence from a randomised field experiment in Mongolia," MPRA Paper 35439, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    17. Urquía-Grande, Elena & Cano-Montero, Elisa I. & Pérez-Estébanez, Raquel & Chamizo-González, Julián, 2018. "Agriculture, nutrition and economics through training: A virtuous cycle in rural Ethiopia," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 707-716.
    18. Ubfal, Diego, 2016. "How general are time preferences? Eliciting good-specific discount rates," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 150-170.
    19. Scott D. Taylor, 2016. "Business rights and ethnic exclusion in sub-Saharan Africa: Addressing group-based inequality through business rights reform," WIDER Working Paper Series 153, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    20. Nix, Emily & Gamberoni, Elisa & Heath, Rachel, 2014. "Bridging the gap : identifying what is holding self-employed women back in Ghana, Rwanda, Tanzania, the Republic of Congo, and Uganda," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6946, The World Bank.
    21. World Bank, 2014. "More Jobs, Better Jobs : A Priority for Egypt," World Bank Publications - Reports 20584, The World Bank Group.
    22. Romain Houssa & Paul Reding & Albena Sotirova, 2017. "Methodological issues of an impact evaluation of development support in agriculture," BeFinD Working Papers 0120, University of Namur, Department of Economics.
    23. Matthias Doepke & Michèle Tertilt, 2019. "Does female empowerment promote economic development?," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 24(4), pages 309-343, December.
    24. Yoonyoung Cho & David Robalino & Samantha Watson, 2016. "Supporting self-employment and small-scale entrepreneurship: potential programs to improve livelihoods for vulnerable workers," IZA Journal of Labor Policy, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 5(1), pages 1-26, December.
    25. Ghazal M. Zulfiqar, 2017. "From Kashf Foundation to Kashf Microfinance Bank—Changing Organizational Identities," Asian Journal of Management Cases, , vol. 14(2), pages 94-114, September.

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    Debt Markets; Economic Theory&Research; Investment and Investment Climate; Science Education; Scientific Research&Science Parks;
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