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Measuring the economic gain of investing in girls : the girl effect dividend

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  • Chaaban, Jad
  • Cunningham, Wendy

Abstract

Although girls are approximately half the youth population in developing countries, they contribute less than their potential to the economy. The objective of this paper is to quantify the opportunity cost of girls'exclusion from productive employment with the hope that stark figures will lead policymakers to reconsider the current underinvestment in girls. The paper explores the linkages between investing in girls and potential increases in national income by examining three widely prevalent aspects of adolescent girls'lives: early school dropout, teenage pregnancy and joblessness. The countries included in the analysis are: Bangladesh, Brazil, Burundi, China, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Paraguay, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. The authors use secondary data to allow for some comparability across countries. They find that investing in girls so that they would complete the next level of education would lead to lifetime earnings of today's cohort of girls that is equivalent to up to 68 percent of annual gross domestic product. When adjusting for ability bias and labor demand elasticities, this figure falls to 54 percent, or 1.5 percent per year. Closing the inactivity rate between girls and boys would increase gross domestic product by up to 5.4 percent, but when accounting for students, male-female wage gaps and labor demand elasticities, the joblessness gap between girls and their male counterparts yields an increase in gross domestic product of up to 1.2 percent in a single year. The cost of adolescent pregnancy as a share of gross domestic could be as high as 30 percent or as low as 1 percent over a girl's lifetime, depending on the assumptions used to calculate the losses.

Suggested Citation

  • Chaaban, Jad & Cunningham, Wendy, 2011. "Measuring the economic gain of investing in girls : the girl effect dividend," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5753, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:5753
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Heath, Rachel & Mushfiq Mobarak, A., 2015. "Manufacturing growth and the lives of Bangladeshi women," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(C), pages 1-15.
    2. repec:eco:journ1:2017-06-4 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Andrea Atencio & Darwin Cortés & Juan Gallego, 2015. "Gender differences on sexual behavior and school inputs: evidence from Bogota," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO 012437, UNIVERSIDAD DEL ROSARIO.
    4. Yekaterina Chzhen & Dominic Richardson, 2014. "Young People (not) in the Labour Market in Rich Countries during the Great Recession," Papers inwopa726, Innocenti Working Papers.
    5. Renata Gukovas & Miriam Muller & Ana Claudia Pereira & Maira Emy Reimao, 2016. "A Snapshot of Gender in Brazil Today," World Bank Other Operational Studies 25976, The World Bank.
    6. Eugen , GHIORGHIŢĂ, 2015. "The Influence Of Education And Training On Productive Skills, Nature Of Work And Gender Inequality," Annals of Spiru Haret University, Economic Series, Universitatea Spiru Haret, vol. 6(2), pages 65-91.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Population Policies; Adolescent Health; Gender and Development; Primary Education; Gender and Education;

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