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Measuring Protection: Mission Impossible?

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  • Salvatici, Luca
  • Cipollina, Maria

Abstract

In the international trade literature there seems to be some confusion between "openness" and "protection" measures. The aim of this paper is to bring together the "state of the art" in quantifying trade policy measures, so we focus on the extent of the protection granted by policies rather than on the degree of openness of the economy. Given the huge size of literature dealing with these issues, we limit our review as follows. On the one hand, we focus on trade policies implemented at the border: accordingly, we do not consider all the other possible public interventions influencing trade flows. On the other hand, we take into account only indexes explicitly adopting a metric expressed in a "scalar aggregate" (tariff- and quota-equivalent measures, or an index in a closed interval). We distinguish between indexes that aggregate across products (same barrier for more products) and indexes that aggregate across instruments (more barriers for the same product). Finally, in order to classify the large number of indexes covered in our review, we propose a typology based on three categories: incidence, outcome and equivalence.

Suggested Citation

  • Salvatici, Luca & Cipollina, Maria, 2006. "Measuring Protection: Mission Impossible?," Working Papers 18876, TRADEAG - Agricultural Trade Agreements.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:tragwp:18876
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    Cited by:

    1. Chau, Nancy H. & Färe, Rolf, 2011. "Shadow pricing market access: A trade benefit function approach," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 146(4), pages 1631-1663, July.
    2. repec:oup:ajagec:v:99:y:2017:i:4:p:847-871. is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Emiliano Magrini & Pierluigi Montalbano & Silvia Nenci & Luca Salvatici, 2014. "Agricultural Trade Policies and Food Security: Is there a Causal Relationship?," Working Papers 9/14, Sapienza University of Rome, DISS.
    4. Matthews, Alan & Salvatici, Luca & Scoppola, Margherita, 2017. "Trade Impacts of Agricultural Support in the EU," Commissioned Papers 252767, International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium.
    5. Benjamin Bridgman, 2013. "Market entry and trade weighted import costs," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 46(3), pages 982-1013, August.
    6. Anne-Célia Disdier & Lionel Fontagné & Mondher Mimouni, 2007. "The Impact of Regulations on Agricultural Trade: Evidence from SPS and TBT Agreements," Working Papers 2007-04, CEPII research center.
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    8. Neil Foster, 2008. "The Impact of Trade Liberalisation on Economic Growth: Evidence from a Quantile Regression Analysis," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(4), pages 543-567, November.
    9. Cardamone, Paola & Scoppola, Margherita, 2012. "Trade costs and the pattern of Foreign Direct Investment: evidence from five EU countries," Congress Papers 124106, Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA).
    10. Listorti, Giulia & Tonini, Axel & Kempen, Markus & Adenauer, Marcel, 2013. "How to Implement WTO Scenarios in Simulation Models: Linking the TRIMAG Tariff Aggregation Tool to Capri," 135th Seminar, August 28-30, 2013, Belgrade, Serbia 160388, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    11. Ferreira-Lopes, Alexandra & Sousa, Cândida & Carvalho, Helena & Crespo, Nuno, 2013. "Trade Protectionism and Intra-industry Trade: A USA - EU Comparison," MPRA Paper 49482, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Diakantoni, Antonia & Escaith, Hubert, 2012. "Reassessing effective protection rates in a trade in tasks perspective: Evolution of trade policy in "Factory Asia"," MPRA Paper 41723, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Aiello, Francesco & Demaria, Federica, 2009. "Do trade preferential agreements enhance the exports of developing countries? Evidence from the EU GSP," MPRA Paper 20093, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Emiliano Magrini & Pierluigi Montalbano & Silvia Nenci & Luca Salvatici, 2017. "Agricultural (Dis)Incentives and Food Security: Is There a Link?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, pages 847-871.
    15. Sampath Jayasinghe & John C. Beghin & Giancarlo Moschini, 2017. "Determinants Of World Demand For U.S. Corn Seeds: The Role Of Trade Costs," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 17, pages 309-320 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    16. Alessandro Antimiani & Piero Conforti & Luca Salvatici, 2008. "Measuring Restrictiveness of Bilateral Trade Policies: A Comparison between Developed and Developing Countries," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 144(2), pages 207-224, July.
    17. Magrini, Emiliano & Montalbano, Pierluigi & Nenci, Silvia & Salvatici, Luca, 2014. "Agricultural trade distortions during recent international price spikes: what implications for food security?," 2014 International Congress, August 26-29, 2014, Ljubljana, Slovenia 182726, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    18. Paola Cardamone & Margherita Scoppola, 2015. "The pattern of EU FDI in the manufacturing industry: What role do third country effects and trade policies play?," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 54(2), pages 511-532, March.
    19. Murat Genç & David Law, 2014. "A Gravity Model of Barriers to Trade in New Zealand," Treasury Working Paper Series 14/05, New Zealand Treasury.
    20. Rickard, Bradley J. & Lei, Lei, 2010. "How important are sanitary and phytosanitary barriers in international markets for fresh fruit?," Working Papers 126974, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
    21. Andrea Dal Bianco & Vasco Ladislao Boatto & Francesco Caracciolo & Fabio Gaetano Santeramo, 2016. "Tariffs and non-tariff frictions in the world wine trade," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 43(1), pages 31-57.
    22. Emlinger, Charlotte & Chevassus-Lozza, Emmanuelle & Jacquet, Florence, 2010. "Fruit and vegetable access to EU markets: Dissecting tariffs faced by Mediterranean countries," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 599-611, December.
    23. Chen, Bo & Ma, Hong & Xu, Yuan, 2014. "Measuring China’s trade liberalization: A generalized measure of trade restrictiveness index," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 994-1006.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Protection; Tariff and Non-Tariff barriers; Tariff and Non-Tariff measures.; International Relations/Trade; F13; F19;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F19 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Other

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