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Measuring Protection: Mission Impossible?

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  • Maria Cipollina
  • Luca Salvatici

Abstract

There seems to be some confusion between 'openness' and 'protection' measures in the international trade literature. The aim of this paper is to bring together the state of the art in quantifying trade policy measures and, for this reason, we focus on the extent of the protection granted by policies rather than on the degree of openness of the economy. Given the considerable amount of literature that deals with these issues, we will limit our review as follows. On the one hand, we focus on trade policies implemented at the border and therefore do not consider all the other possible public interventions influencing trade flows. On the other hand, we only take into account indexes that explicitly adopt a metric expressed in a 'scalar aggregate' (tariff- and quota-equivalent measures, or an index in a closed interval). We distinguish between indexes that aggregate across products (same barrier for more products) and indexes that aggregate across instruments (more barriers for the same product). Finally, in order to classify the large number of indexes covered in our review, we propose a typology based on three categories: incidence, outcome and equivalence. Copyright © 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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  • Maria Cipollina & Luca Salvatici, 2008. "Measuring Protection: Mission Impossible?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(3), pages 577-616, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jecsur:v:22:y:2008:i:3:p:577-616
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    2. Emiliano Magrini & Pierluigi Montalbano & Silvia Nenci & Luca Salvatici, 2014. "Agricultural Trade Policies and Food Security: Is there a Causal Relationship?," Working Papers 9/14, Sapienza University of Rome, DISS.
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    6. Diakantoni, Antonia & Escaith, Hubert, 2012. "Reassessing effective protection rates in a trade in tasks perspective: Evolution of trade policy in "Factory Asia"," MPRA Paper 41723, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    8. Magrini, Emiliano & Montalbano, Pierluigi & Nenci, Silvia & Salvatici, Luca, 2014. "Agricultural Trade Policy Distortions and Food Security: Is there a Causal Relationship?," 2014 Third Congress, June 25-27, 2014, Alghero, Italy 173091, Italian Association of Agricultural and Applied Economics (AIEAA).
    9. Benjamin Bridgman, 2013. "Market entry and trade weighted import costs," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 46(3), pages 982-1013, August.
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    15. Neil Foster, 2008. "The Impact of Trade Liberalisation on Economic Growth: Evidence from a Quantile Regression Analysis," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(4), pages 543-567, November.
    16. Listorti, Giulia & Tonini, Axel & Kempen, Markus & Adenauer, Marcel, 2013. "How to Implement WTO Scenarios in Simulation Models: Linking the TRIMAG Tariff Aggregation Tool to Capri," 135th Seminar, August 28-30, 2013, Belgrade, Serbia 160388, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    17. Aiello, Francesco & Demaria, Federica, 2009. "Do trade preferential agreements enhance the exports of developing countries? Evidence from the EU GSP," MPRA Paper 20093, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    20. Paola Cardamone & Margherita Scoppola, 2015. "The pattern of EU FDI in the manufacturing industry: What role do third country effects and trade policies play?," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 54(2), pages 511-532, March.
    21. Rickard, Bradley J. & Lei, Lei, 2010. "How important are sanitary and phytosanitary barriers in international markets for fresh fruit?," Working Papers 126974, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
    22. Emlinger, Charlotte & Chevassus-Lozza, Emmanuelle & Jacquet, Florence, 2010. "Fruit and vegetable access to EU markets: Dissecting tariffs faced by Mediterranean countries," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 599-611, December.
    23. Chen, Bo & Ma, Hong & Xu, Yuan, 2014. "Measuring China’s trade liberalization: A generalized measure of trade restrictiveness index," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 994-1006.

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    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F19 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Other

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