IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/bla/jecsur/v22y2008i3p577-616.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Measuring Protection: Mission Impossible?

Author

Listed:
  • Maria Cipollina
  • Luca Salvatici

Abstract

There seems to be some confusion between ‘openness’ and ‘protection’ measures in the international trade literature. The aim of this paper is to bring together the state of the art in quantifying trade policy measures and, for this reason, we focus on the extent of the protection granted by policies rather than on the degree of openness of the economy. Given the considerable amount of literature that deals with these issues, we will limit our review as follows. On the one hand, we focus on trade policies implemented at the border and therefore do not consider all the other possible public interventions influencing trade flows. On the other hand, we only take into account indexes that explicitly adopt a metric expressed in a ‘scalar aggregate’ (tariff‐ and quota‐equivalent measures, or an index in a closed interval). We distinguish between indexes that aggregate across products (same barrier for more products) and indexes that aggregate across instruments (more barriers for the same product). Finally, in order to classify the large number of indexes covered in our review, we propose a typology based on three categories: incidence, outcome and equivalence.

Suggested Citation

  • Maria Cipollina & Luca Salvatici, 2008. "Measuring Protection: Mission Impossible?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(3), pages 577-616, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:jecsur:v:22:y:2008:i:3:p:577-616
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6419.2007.00543.x
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6419.2007.00543.x
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1111/j.1467-6419.2007.00543.x?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hiau LooiKee & Alessandro Nicita & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2009. "Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(534), pages 172-199, January.
    2. James E. Anderson & J. Peter Neary, 1996. "A New Approach to Evaluating Trade Policy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(1), pages 107-125.
    3. Anderson, James E & Neary, J Peter, 1994. "Measuring the Restrictiveness of Trade Policy," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 8(2), pages 151-169, May.
    4. J. Peter Neary, 1998. "Pitfalls in the Theory of International Trade Policy: Concertina Reforms of Tariffs, and Subsidies to High‐Technology Industries," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 100(1), pages 187-206, March.
    5. David Greenaway & Chris Milner, 2003. "Effective Protection, Policy Appraisal and Trade Policy Reform," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(4), pages 441-456, April.
    6. James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2004. "Trade Costs," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 42(3), pages 691-751, September.
    7. Jean‐Christophe Bureau & Luca Salvatici, 2005. "Agricultural trade restrictiveness in the European Union and the United States," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 33(s3), pages 479-490, November.
    8. Kym Anderson, 2003. "Measuring Effects of Trade Policy Distortions: How Far Have We Come?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(4), pages 413-440, April.
    9. Rose, Andrew K., 2004. "Do WTO members have more liberal trade policy?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(2), pages 209-235, July.
    10. J. Clark Leith, 1970. "Reply," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 84(1), pages 158-160.
    11. Nancy H. Chau & Rolf F”re & Shawna Grosskopf, 2003. "Trade restrictiveness and efficiency," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 44(3), pages 1079-1095, August.
    12. Scott Bradford, 2003. "Paying the Price: Final Goods Protection in OECD Countries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(1), pages 24-37, February.
    13. Chengyan Yue & John Beghin & Helen H. Jensen, 2017. "Tariff Equivalent Of Technical Barriers To Trade With Imperfect Substitution And Trade Costs," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: John Christopher Beghin (ed.), Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 9, pages 151-164, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    14. Soamiely Andriamananjara & Michael Ferrantino & Marinos Tsigas, 2005. "Alternative Approaches In Estimating The Economic Effects Of Non-Tariff Measures: Results From Newly Quantified Measures," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Philippa Dee & Michael Ferrantino (ed.), Quantitative Methods For Assessing The Effects Of Non-Tariff Measures And Trade Facilitation, chapter 19, pages 525-540, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    15. Julio.J. Nogués & Andrzej Olechowski & L. Alan Winters, 2015. "The Extent of Nontariff Barriers to Industrial Countries' Imports," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Non-Tariff Barriers, Regionalism and Poverty Essays in Applied International Trade Analysis, chapter 2, pages 29-47, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    16. William Cline, 2002. "An Index of Industrial Country Trade Policy Toward Developing Countries," Working Papers 14, Center for Global Development.
    17. James E. Anderson & J. Peter Neary, 1988. "The Coefficient of Trade Utilization: Back to the Baldwin Envelope," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 174, Boston College Department of Economics.
    18. Feenstra, Robert C., 1995. "Estimating the effects of trade policy," Handbook of International Economics, in: G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 30, pages 1553-1595, Elsevier.
    19. Bela Balassa, 1965. "Tariff Protection in Industrial Countries: An Evaluation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73, pages 573-573.
    20. Goldberg, Pinelopi K. & Verboven, Frank, 2005. "Market integration and convergence to the Law of One Price: evidence from the European car market," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 49-73, January.
    21. Harrigan, James, 1997. "Technology, Factor Supplies, and International Specialization: Estimating the Neoclassical Model," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 475-494, September.
    22. Lindland, Jostein, 1997. "The impact of the Uruguay Round on tariff escalation in agricultural products," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 22(6), pages 487-500, December.
    23. Anderson, James E & Neary, J Peter, 1992. "Trade Reform with Quotas, Partial Rent Retention, and Tariffs," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(1), pages 57-76, January.
    24. Cadot, Olivier & Carrere, Celine & De Melo, Jaime & Tumurchudur, Bolormaa, 2006. "Product-specific rules of origin in EU and US preferential trading arrangements: an assessment," World Trade Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(2), pages 199-224, July.
    25. Bach, Christian F. & Martin, Will, 2001. "Would the right tariff aggregator for policy analysis please stand up?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 621-635, August.
    26. John C. Beghin & Jean-Christophe Bureau, 2001. "Quantification of Sanitary, Phytosanitary, and Technical Barriers to Trade for Trade Policy Analysis," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 01-wp291, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
    27. Aitken, Norman D, 1973. "The Effect of the EEC and EFTA on European Trade: A Temporal Cross-Section Analysis," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 63(5), pages 881-892, December.
    28. Hiau Looi Kee & Alessandro Nicita & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2008. "Import Demand Elasticities and Trade Distortions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(4), pages 666-682, November.
    29. Gibson, Paul R. & Wainio, John & Whitley, Daniel B. & Bohman, Mary, 2001. "Profiles Of Tariffs In Global Agricultural Markets," Agricultural Economic Reports 34055, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
    30. John C. Beghin & Jean-Christophe Bureau, 2017. "Quantitative Policy Analysis Of Sanitary, Phytosanitary And Technical Barriers To Trade," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: John Christopher Beghin (ed.), Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 3, pages 39-62, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    31. O'Rourke, Kevin H., 1997. "Measuring protection: a cautionary tale," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 169-183, June.
    32. Robert E. Baldwin, 1989. "Measuring Nontariff Trade Policies," NBER Working Papers 2978, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    33. David H. Romer & Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1999. "Does Trade Cause Growth?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(3), pages 379-399, June.
    34. Harrison, Ann, 1996. "Openness and growth: A time-series, cross-country analysis for developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 419-447, March.
    35. Anderson, James E, 1998. "Trade Restrictiveness Benchmarks," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(449), pages 1111-1125, July.
    36. Bureau Jean-Christophe & Salvatici Luca, 2004. "WTO Negotiations on Market Access in Agriculture: a Comparison of Alternative Tariff Cut Proposals for the EU and the US," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 4(1), pages 1-35, March.
    37. Robert E. Baldwin, 1991. "Empirical Studies of Commercial Policy," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number bald91-1, January.
    38. Jones, Ronald W. & Peter Neary, J., 1984. "The positive theory of international trade," Handbook of International Economics, in: R. W. Jones & P. B. Kenen (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 1, pages 1-62, Elsevier.
    39. Philippa Dee & Michael Ferrantino (ed.), 2005. "Quantitative Methods for Assessing the Effects of Non-Tariff Measures and Trade Facilitation," World Scientific Books, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., number 5663, January.
    40. J. Clark Leith, 1968. "Substitution and Supply Elasticities in Calculating the Effective Protective Rate," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 82(4), pages 588-601.
    41. Edwards, Sebastian, 1998. "Openness, Productivity and Growth: What Do We Really Know?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(447), pages 383-398, March.
    42. James E. Anderson & J. Peter Neary, 2003. "The Mercantilist Index of Trade Policy," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 44(2), pages 627-649, May.
    43. Anderson, James E., 1998. "Effective protection redux1," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 21-44, February.
    44. Robert E. Baldwin, 2004. "Openness and Growth: What's the Empirical Relationship?," NBER Chapters, in: Challenges to Globalization: Analyzing the Economics, pages 499-521, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    45. James E. Anderson & J. Peter Neary, 2005. "Measuring the Restrictiveness of International Trade Policy," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262012200, December.
    46. Marc Bacchetta & Bijit Bora, 2001. "Post-Uruguay Round Market Access Barriersfor Industrial Products," UNCTAD Blue Series Papers 12, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    47. Jean-Christophe Bureau & Nicholas G. Kalaitzandonakes, 1995. "Measuring Effective Protection as a Superlative Index Number: An Application to European Agriculture," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 77(2), pages 279-290.
    48. Anderson, James E & Bannister, Geoffrey J & Neary, J Peter, 1995. "Domestic Distortions and International Trade," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 36(1), pages 139-157, February.
    49. Lloyd, P. J. & MacLaren, D., 2002. "Measures of trade openness using CGE analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 67-81, March.
    50. Sam Laird & Alexander Yeats, 1990. "Quantitative Methods for Trade-Barrier Analysis," Palgrave Macmillan Books, Palgrave Macmillan, number 978-1-349-11141-1.
    51. Salvatici, Luca & Carter, Colin A. & Sumner, Daniel A., 1997. "The Trade Restrictiveness Index: The Potential Contribution To Agricultural Policy Analysis," 1997 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Toronto, Canada 21028, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    52. Edward E. Leamer, 1988. "Measures of Openness," NBER Chapters, in: Trade Policy Issues and Empirical Analysis, pages 145-204, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    53. repec:umd:umdeco:rodriguez9901 is not listed on IDEAS
    54. Jagdish N. Bhagwati, 1978. "Anatomy of Exchange Control Regimes," NBER Chapters, in: Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development: Anatomy and Consequences of Exchange Control Regimes, pages 7-52, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    55. Yue, Chengyan & Beghin, John C. & Jensen, Helen H., 2006. "AJAE Appendix: Tariff Equivalent of Technical Barriers to Trade with Imperfect Substitution and Trade Costs," American Journal of Agricultural Economics APPENDICES, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 88(4), pages 1-9, November.
    56. James E. Anderson, 1991. "The Coefficient of Trade Utilization: The Cheese Case," NBER Chapters, in: Empirical Studies of Commercial Policy, pages 221-244, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    57. Lionel Fontagné & Friedrich von Kirchbach & Mondher Mimouni, 2001. "A First Assessment of Environment-Related Trade Barriers," Working Papers 2001-10, CEPII research center.
    58. Jeffrey D. Sachs & Andrew Warner, 1995. "Economic Reform and the Process of Global Integration," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 26(1, 25th A), pages 1-118.
    59. David Dollar & Aart Kraay, 2004. "Trade, Growth, and Poverty," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(493), pages 22-49, February.
    60. Bernard Hoekman & Francis Ng & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2002. "Eliminating Excessive Tariffs on Exports of Least Developed Countries," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 16(1), pages 1-21, June.
    61. Hassink, Wolter & Schettkat, Ronald, 2001. "On Price-Setting for Identical Products in Markets without Formal Trade Barriers," IZA Discussion Papers 315, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    62. Jagdish N. Bhagwati, 1978. "Appendix to "Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development: Anatomy and Consequences of Exchange Control Regimes"," NBER Chapters, in: Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development: Anatomy and Consequences of Exchange Control Regimes, pages 219-221, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    63. Pritchett, Lant & Sethi, Geeta, 1994. "Tariff Rates, Tariff Revenue, and Tariff Reform: Some New Facts," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 8(1), pages 1-16, January.
    64. Andriamananjara, Soamiely & Dean, Judith M. & Feinberg, Robert & Ferrantino, Michael J. & Ludema, Rodney & Tsigas, Marinos E., 2004. "The Effects of Non-Tariff Measures on Prices, Trade, and Welfare: CGE Implementation of Policy-Based Price Comparisons," Working Papers 15863, United States International Trade Commission, Office of Economics.
    65. Antimiani, Alessandro & Salvatici, Luca, 2005. "EU Trade Policies: Benchmarking Protection in a General Equilibrium Framework," Working Papers 18856, TRADEAG - Agricultural Trade Agreements.
    66. J. Christophe Bureau & Nancy H. Chau & Rolf Färe & Shawna Grosskopf, 2003. "Economic Performance, Trade Restrictiveness, and Efficiency," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(4), pages 527-542, November.
    67. Luca Salvatici, 2001. "Trade Distortion Indexes and Applied General Equilibrium Models: The Case of the Common Agricoltural Policy," Working Papers in Public Economics 45, University of Rome La Sapienza, Department of Economics and Law.
    68. Cadot, Olivier & Carrère, Céline & de Melo, Jaime & Tumurchudur, Bolormaa, 2005. "Product Specific Rules of Origin in EU and US Preferential Trading Agreements: An Assessment," CEPR Discussion Papers 4998, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    69. Francisco Rodríguez & Dani Rodrik, 2001. "Trade Policy and Economic Growth: A Skeptic's Guide to the Cross-National Evidence," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15, pages 261-338, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    70. J-C Bureau & L Fulponi & L Salvatici, 2000. "Comparing EU and US trade liberalisation under the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 27(3), pages 259-280, September.
    71. Anania, Giovanni, 2001. "Modeling Agricultural Trade Liberalization And Its Implications For The European Union," Working Papers 14797, National Institute of Agricultural Economics, Italy - INEA, Osservatorio Sulle Politiche Agricole dell'UE.
    72. Judith M. Dean & Robert Feinberg & Michael Ferrantino, 2005. "Estimating The Tariff-Equivalent Of Ntms," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Philippa Dee & Michael Ferrantino (ed.), Quantitative Methods For Assessing The Effects Of Non-Tariff Measures And Trade Facilitation, chapter 13, pages 289-309, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    73. W. M. Corden, 1966. "The Structure of a Tariff System and the Effective Protective Rate," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 74, pages 221-221.
    74. Bijit Bora & Aki Kuwahara & Sam Laird, 2002. "Quantification Of Non-Tariff Measures," UNCTAD Blue Series Papers 18, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    75. Randi Boorstein & Robert C. Feenstra, 1987. "Quality Upgrading and its Welfare Cost in U.S. Steel Imports, 1969-74," NBER Working Papers 2452, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    76. James E. Anderson & J. Peter Neary, 2004. "Welfare vs. Market Access: The Implications of Tariff Structure for Tariff Reform," NBER Working Papers 10730, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    77. Angus Deaton, 1979. "The Distance Function in Consumer Behaviour with Applications to Index Numbers and Optimal Taxation," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(3), pages 391-405.
    78. Edwards, Sebastian, 1993. "Openness, Trade Liberalization, and Growth in Developing Countries," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 31(3), pages 1358-1393, September.
    79. Warren, Tony & Gary Clyde Hufbauer & Erika Wada, 2002. "Benefits of Price Convergence: Speculative Calculations, The," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number pa65, October.
    80. Vlad Manole & Will Martin, 2016. "Aggregating trade distortions," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 36(1), pages 320-328.
    81. James E. Anderson & Will Martin, 1996. "The Welfare Analysis of Fiscal Policy: A Simple Unified Account," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 316., Boston College Department of Economics.
    82. Anderson, James E, 1995. "Tariff-Index Theory," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 3(2), pages 156-173, June.
    83. Piermartini, Roberta & Teh, Robert, 2005. "Demystifying modelling methods for trade policy," WTO Discussion Papers 10, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    84. Chen, Been-Lon, 1999. "Trade Openness and Economic Growth: Evidence in East Asia and Latin America," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 14, pages 265-295.
    85. Dollar, David, 1992. "Outward-Oriented Developing Economies Really Do Grow More Rapidly: Evidence from 95 LDCs, 1976-1985," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(3), pages 523-544, April.
    86. Antoine Bouët & Yvan Decreux & Lionel Fontagné & Sébastien Jean & David Laborde, 2004. "A Consistent, Ad-Valorem Equivalent Measure of Applied Protection Across the World: The MAcMap-HS6 Database," Working Papers 2004-22, CEPII research center.
    87. Pritchett, Lant, 1996. "Measuring outward orientation in LDCs: Can it be done?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 307-335, May.
    88. Amelia U. Santos‐Paulino, 2005. "Trade Liberalisation and Economic Performance: Theory and Evidence for Developing Countries," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(6), pages 783-821, June.
    89. Robert E. Baldwin, 1988. "Trade Policy Issues and Empirical Analysis," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number bald88-2, January.
    90. Jagdish N. Bhagwati, 1978. "Foreign Trade Regimes and Economic Development: Anatomy and Consequences of Exchange Control Regimes," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number bhag78-1, January.
    91. Michael J. Ferrantino, 2006. "Quantifying the Trade and Economic Effects of Non-Tariff Measures," OECD Trade Policy Papers 28, OECD Publishing.
    92. Calvin, Linda & Krissoff, Barry, 1998. "Technical Barriers To Trade: A Case Study Of Phytosanitary Barriers And U.S. - Japanese Apple Trade," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 23(2), pages 1-16, December.
    93. Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M. Stern, 1997. "Measurement of Non-Tariff Barriers," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 179, OECD Publishing.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Hiau LooiKee & Alessandro Nicita & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2009. "Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(534), pages 172-199, January.
    2. Anne O. Krueger & Mr. Andrew Berg, 2003. "Trade, Growth, and Poverty: A Selective Survey," IMF Working Papers 2003/030, International Monetary Fund.
    3. James E. Anderson & J. Peter Neary, 2003. "The Mercantilist Index of Trade Policy," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 44(2), pages 627-649, May.
    4. Michael J. Ferrantino, 2006. "Quantifying the Trade and Economic Effects of Non-Tariff Measures," OECD Trade Policy Papers 28, OECD Publishing.
    5. Manwa, Farai & Wijeweera, Albert & Kortt, Michael A., 2019. "Trade and growth in SACU countries: A panel data analysis," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 107-118.
    6. Tarlok Singh, 2010. "Does International Trade Cause Economic Growth? A Survey," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(11), pages 1517-1564, November.
    7. Manwa, Farai & Wijeweera, Albert, 2016. "Trade liberalisation and economic growth link: The case of Southern African Custom Union countries," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 12-21.
    8. Zhaohui Niu & Chang Liu & Saileshsingh Gunessee & Chris Milner, 2018. "Non-tariff and overall protection: evidence across countries and over time," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 154(4), pages 675-703, November.
    9. John Knight & Sai Ding, 2008. "Why has China Grown so Fast? The Role of Structural Change," Economics Series Working Papers 415, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
    10. Pelikan, J. & Brockmeier, M., 2009. "Wohlfahrtswirkungen einer Handelsliberalisierung: Welchen Einfluss hat die Zollaggregation auf die Modellergebnisse?," Proceedings “Schriften der Gesellschaft für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften des Landbaues e.V.”, German Association of Agricultural Economists (GEWISOLA), vol. 44, March.
    11. L. G. Burange & Rucha R. Ranadive & Neha N. Karnik, 2019. "Trade Openness and Economic Growth Nexus: A Case Study of BRICS," Foreign Trade Review, , vol. 54(1), pages 1-15, February.
    12. Iyke Bernard Njindan, 2017. "Does Trade Openness Matter for Economic Growth in the CEE Countries?," Review of Economic Perspectives, Sciendo, vol. 17(1), pages 3-24, March.
    13. Dean Judith M & Signoret José E & Feinberg Robert M. & Ludema Rodney D. & Ferrantino Michael J, 2009. "Estimating the Price Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 9(1), pages 1-41, March.
    14. Zhaohui Niu & Chang Liu & Saileshsingh Gunessee & Chris Milner, 2017. "Non-Tariff and Overall Protection: Evidence from Across Countries and Over Time," Discussion Papers 2017-08, University of Nottingham, GEP.
    15. Yanikkaya, Halit, 2003. "Trade openness and economic growth: a cross-country empirical investigation," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(1), pages 57-89, October.
    16. Knobel, Alexander (Кнобель, Александр) & Baeva, Marina (Баева, Марина), 2017. "Protective Measures in Integration Agreements and Their Impact on Mutual Trade and Trade with Third Countries: Features of Russia and the Countries of the Eurasian Economic Union [Защитные Меры В И," Working Papers 051735, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration.
    17. Janine Pelikan & Martina Brockmeier, 2008. "Tariff Aggregation and Market Access: An Empirical Assessment for Canada and the EU," Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie, Canadian Agricultural Economics Society/Societe canadienne d'agroeconomie, vol. 56(4), pages 413-427, December.
    18. John Christopher Beghin & Anne-Célia Disdier & Stéphan Marette, 2017. "Trade restrictiveness indices in the presence of externalities: An application to non-tariff measures," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: John Christopher Beghin (ed.), Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 5, pages 81-104, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    19. Bo Chen & Hong Ma & David S. Jacks, 2017. "Revisiting the Effective Rate of Protection in the Late Stages of Chinese Industrialisation," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(2), pages 424-438, February.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bla:jecsur:v:22:y:2008:i:3:p:577-616. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0950-0804 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Wiley Content Delivery (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/journal.asp?ref=0950-0804 .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.