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Domestic distortions and international trade

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  • James E. Anderson
  • J. Peter Neary

Abstract

In this paper, we investigate techniques for measuring the trade policy equivalent of domestic distortions, using a distance function approach. Our measure, the Trade Restrictiveness Index, is shown to equal the uniform tariff which is welfare-equivalent to a given pattern of domestic taxes and subsidies. We extend the Index to incorporate taxes in markets for non-traded goods and factors of production and illustrates its operationality with an application to liberalisation in Mexican agriculture. We conclude that our Index has considerable potential in empirical work and as an aid to trade negotiations.

Suggested Citation

  • James E. Anderson & J. Peter Neary, 1992. "Domestic distortions and international trade," Working Papers 199217, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucn:wpaper:199217
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10197/1688
    File Function: First version, 1992
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. James E. Anderson & J. Peter Neary, 1996. "A New Approach to Evaluating Trade Policy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(1), pages 107-125.
    2. Neary, J Peter, 1995. "Trade Liberalisation and Shadow Prices in the Presence of Tariffs and Quotas," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 36(3), pages 531-554, August.
    3. Anderson, James E & Neary, J Peter, 1992. "Trade Reform with Quotas, Partial Rent Retention, and Tariffs," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(1), pages 57-76, January.
    4. Anderson, James E. & Bannister, Geoffrey, 1992. "The trade restrictiveness index : an application to Mexican agriculture," Policy Research Working Paper Series 874, The World Bank.
    5. Bertrand, Trent J & Vanek, Jaroslav, 1971. "The Theory of Tariffs, Taxes, and Subsidies: Some Aspects of the Second Best," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(5), pages 925-931, December.
    6. Jones, Ronald W. & Peter Neary, J., 1984. "The positive theory of international trade," Handbook of International Economics,in: R. W. Jones & P. B. Kenen (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 1, pages 1-62 Elsevier.
    7. Tatsuo Hatta, 1977. "A Theory of Piecemeal Policy Recommendations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 44(1), pages 1-21.
    8. Michael Bruno, 1972. "Market Distortions and Gradual Reform," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 39(3), pages 373-383.
    9. Lloyd, P. J., 1974. "A more general theory of price distortions in open economies," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 365-386, November.
    10. Jones, Ronald W, 1971. "Distortions in Factor Markets and the General Equilibrium Model of Production," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(3), pages 437-459, May-June.
    11. Diewert, W. E., 1985. "A dynamic approach to the measurement of waste in an open economy," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 213-240, November.
    12. Angus Deaton, 1979. "The Distance Function in Consumer Behaviour with Applications to Index Numbers and Optimal Taxation," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(3), pages 391-405.
    13. James E. Anderson, 1988. "The Relative Inefficiency of Quotas," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262511789, May.
    14. Falvey, Rodney E., 1988. "Tariffs, quotas and piecemeal policy reform," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1-2), pages 177-183, August.
    15. Anderson, James E, 1995. "Tariff-Index Theory," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 3(2), pages 156-173, June.
    16. Foster, Edward & Sonnenschein, Hugo, 1970. "Price Distortion and Economic Welfare," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 38(2), pages 281-297, March.
    17. Peter Neary, 1988. "Tariffs, Quotas, and Voluntary Export Restraints with and without Internationally Mobile Capital," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 21(4), pages 714-735, November.
    18. Magee, Stephen P, 1973. "Factor Market Distortions, Production, and Trade: A Survey," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(1), pages 1-43, March.
    19. Neary, J Peter, 1978. "Dynamic Stability and the Theory of Factor-Market Distortions," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 68(4), pages 671-682, September.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Hiau LooiKee & Alessandro Nicita & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2009. "Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(534), pages 172-199, January.
    2. Salvatici, Luca & Carter, Colin A. & Sumner, Daniel A., 1997. "The Trade Restrictiveness Index and its Potential Contribution to Agricultural Policy Analysis," 1997 Conference, August 10-16, 1997, Sacramento, California 197065, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    3. Ker, Alan P., 2000. "Modeling Technical Trade Barriers Under Uncertainty," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 1-23, July.
    4. Peter J. Lloyd & Johanna L. Croser & Kym Anderson, 2010. "Global Distortions to Agricultural Markets: Indicators of Trade and Welfare Impacts, 1960 to 2007," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(2), pages 141-160, May.
    5. John C. Beghin & Bo Xiong, 2016. "Economic Effects of Standard-Like Nontariff Measures: Analytical and Methodological Dimensions," Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) Publications 16-wp569, Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) at Iowa State University.
    6. Maria Cipollina & Luca Salvatici, 2008. "Measuring Protection: Mission Impossible?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(3), pages 577-616, July.
    7. James E. Anderson & J. Peter Neary, 2003. "The Mercantilist Index of Trade Policy," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 44(2), pages 627-649, May.
    8. Salvatici, Luca & Carter, Colin A. & Sumner, Daniel A., 1997. "The Trade Restrictiveness Index: The Potential Contribution To Agricultural Policy Analysis," 1997 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Toronto, Canada 21028, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
    9. Feenstra, Robert C., 1995. "Estimating the effects of trade policy," Handbook of International Economics,in: G. M. Grossman & K. Rogoff (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 30, pages 1553-1595 Elsevier.
    10. James E. Anderson, 1994. "Effective Protection Redux," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 273., Boston College Department of Economics.
    11. Anderson, James E., 1998. "Effective protection redux1," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 21-44, February.
    12. Anderson, James E., 1998. "The Uruguay Round and welfare in some distorted agricultural economies," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 393-410, August.
    13. Anderson, James E, 1998. "Trade Restrictiveness Benchmarks," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(449), pages 1111-1125, July.
    14. Hans Gersbach & Hans Haller, 2007. "Hierarchical Trade and Endogenous Price Distortions," CER-ETH Economics working paper series 07/72, CER-ETH - Center of Economic Research (CER-ETH) at ETH Zurich.
    15. Chi-Chur Chao & Eden Yu, 1998. "Optimal pollution and foreign-investment taxes in a small open economy," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(1), pages 71-85.
    16. Hamid Beladi & Chi-Chur Chao, 2006. "Mixed Ownership, Unemployment, and Welfare for a Developing Economy," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 10(4), pages 604-611, November.
    17. Antoine Bou√ęt, 2000. "La mesure des protections commerciales nationales," Working Papers 2000-15, CEPII research center.
    18. Christos Pantzios, 2000. "Trade Restrictiveness in the Presence of 'New' Goods," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 93-101, January.
    19. Pantzios, Christos J. & Taylor, Timothy G., 1998. "Trade Liberalization And Japanese Agricultural Import Policies," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 1-13, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Trade policy; Domestic distortions; Producer and consumer subsidy equivalents; Trade restrictiveness index; Commercial policy; International trade;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General

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