IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/spr/weltar/v154y2018i4d10.1007_s10290-018-0317-5.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Non-tariff and overall protection: evidence across countries and over time

Author

Listed:
  • Zhaohui Niu

    (Beihang University)

  • Chang Liu

    (University of Nottingham)

  • Saileshsingh Gunessee

    (Nottingham University Business School China)

  • Chris Milner

    (University of Nottingham)

Abstract

This paper analyzes the evolution of the incidence and intensity of non-tariff measures (NTMs). It extends earlier work by measuring protection from NTMs over time from a newly available database and provides evidence on the evolution of NTMs. In particular, building on Kee et al. (Econ J 119(534):172–199, 2009), this paper estimates the ad valorem equivalents of NTMs for 97 countries at the product level over the period 1997–2015. We show that the incidence and the intensity of NTMs were both increasing over this period, with NTMs becoming an even more dominant source of trade protection. We are also able to investigate the evolution of overall protection derived jointly from tariffs and NTMs. The results show that the overall protection level, for most countries and products, has not decreased despite the fall in tariffs associated with multilateral, regional and bilateral trade agreements in recent decades. We also document an increase in overall trade protection during the recent 2008 financial crisis. Overall, this study sheds light on an under-researched aspect of trade liberalization: the proliferation and increase of NTMs.

Suggested Citation

  • Zhaohui Niu & Chang Liu & Saileshsingh Gunessee & Chris Milner, 2018. "Non-tariff and overall protection: evidence across countries and over time," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 154(4), pages 675-703, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:weltar:v:154:y:2018:i:4:d:10.1007_s10290-018-0317-5
    DOI: 10.1007/s10290-018-0317-5
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s10290-018-0317-5
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to the full text of the articles in this series is restricted.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1007/s10290-018-0317-5?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hiau LooiKee & Alessandro Nicita & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2009. "Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(534), pages 172-199, January.
    2. Anderson, James E & Neary, J Peter, 1994. "Measuring the Restrictiveness of Trade Policy," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 8(2), pages 151-169, May.
    3. James E. Anderson & J. Peter Neary, 1996. "A New Approach to Evaluating Trade Policy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(1), pages 107-125.
    4. Scott Bradford, 2003. "Paying the Price: Final Goods Protection in OECD Countries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(1), pages 24-37, February.
    5. Bela Balassa, 1965. "Tariff Protection in Industrial Countries: An Evaluation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73, pages 573-573.
    6. Hiau Looi Kee & Alessandro Nicita & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2008. "Import Demand Elasticities and Trade Distortions," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(4), pages 666-682, November.
    7. Trefler, Daniel, 1993. "Trade Liberalization and the Theory of Endogenous Protection: An Econometric Study of U.S. Import Policy," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(1), pages 138-160, February.
    8. Hiau Looi Kee & Cristina Neagu & Alessandro Nicita, 2013. "Is Protectionism on the Rise? Assessing National Trade Policies during the Crisis of 2008," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(1), pages 342-346, March.
    9. Mahdi Ghodsi & Julia Grübler & Oliver Reiter & Robert Stehrer, 2017. "The Evolution of Non-Tariff Measures and their Diverse Effects on Trade," wiiw Research Reports 419, The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw.
    10. Emma Aisbett & Lee M. Pearson, 2012. "Environmental and Health Protections, or New Protectionism? Determinants of SPS Notifications by WTO Members," Crawford School Research Papers 1213, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    11. Antoine Bouët & Yvan Decreux & Lionel Fontagné & Sébastien Jean & David Laborde, 2008. "Assessing Applied Protection across the World," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(5), pages 850-863, November.
    12. W. M. Corden, 1966. "The Structure of a Tariff System and the Effective Protective Rate," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 74, pages 221-221.
    13. Mattias Ganslandt & James R. Markusen, 2001. "Standards and Related Regulations in International Trade: A Modeling Approach," NBER Working Papers 8346, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    14. Michael Bratt, 2017. "Estimating the bilateral impact of nontariff measures on trade," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(5), pages 1105-1129, November.
    15. Michael J. Ferrantino, 2006. "Quantifying the Trade and Economic Effects of Non-Tariff Measures," OECD Trade Policy Papers 28, OECD Publishing.
    16. Julien Gourdon & Alessandro Nicita, 2013. "A Preliminary Analysis On Newly Collected Data On Non-Tariff Measures," UNCTAD Blue Series Papers 53, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    17. Edward E. Leamer, 1988. "Measures of Openness," NBER Chapters, in: Trade Policy Issues and Empirical Analysis, pages 145-204, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Anne-Célia Disdier & Stéphan Marette, 2010. "The Combination of Gravity and Welfare Approaches for Evaluating Nontariff Measures," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 92(3), pages 713-726.
    19. Bijit Bora & Aki Kuwahara & Sam Laird, 2002. "Quantification Of Non-Tariff Measures," UNCTAD Blue Series Papers 18, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    20. Bernard Hoekman & Francis Ng & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2004. "Agricultural Tariffs or Subsidies: Which Are More Important for Developing Economies?," The World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 18(2), pages 175-204.
    21. Dean Judith M & Signoret José E & Feinberg Robert M. & Ludema Rodney D. & Ferrantino Michael J, 2009. "Estimating the Price Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 9(1), pages 1-41, March.
    22. Leamer, Edward E., 1990. "Latin America as a target of trade barriers erected by the major developed countries in 1983," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 337-368, April.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Zhaohui Niu & Chang Liu & Saileshsingh Gunessee & Chris Milner, 2017. "Non-Tariff and Overall Protection: Evidence from Across Countries and Over Time," Discussion Papers 2017-08, University of Nottingham, GEP.
    2. Maria Cipollina & Luca Salvatici, 2008. "Measuring Protection: Mission Impossible?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(3), pages 577-616, July.
    3. Luisa Kinzius & Alexander Sandkamp & Erdal Yalcin, 2019. "Trade protection and the role of non-tariff barriers," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 155(4), pages 603-643, November.
    4. Hiau LooiKee & Alessandro Nicita & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2009. "Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(534), pages 172-199, January.
    5. Michael Bratt, 2017. "Estimating the bilateral impact of nontariff measures on trade," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 25(5), pages 1105-1129, November.
    6. Ederington,Josh & Ruta,Michele, 2016. "Non-tariff measures and the world trading system," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7661, The World Bank.
    7. Mahdi Ghodsi & Robert Stehrer, 2022. "Trade policy and global value chains: tariffs versus non-tariff measures," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 158(3), pages 887-916, August.
    8. Bo Chen & Hong Ma & David S. Jacks, 2017. "Revisiting the Effective Rate of Protection in the Late Stages of Chinese Industrialisation," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(2), pages 424-438, February.
    9. John Christopher Beghin & Anne-Célia Disdier & Stéphan Marette, 2017. "Trade restrictiveness indices in the presence of externalities: An application to non-tariff measures," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: John Christopher Beghin (ed.), Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 5, pages 81-104, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    10. Eyal Ronen, 2017. "Tariffs and non-tariff measures: substitutes or complements. A cross-country analysis," Bank i Kredyt, Narodowy Bank Polski, vol. 48(1), pages 45-72.
    11. Disdier, Anne-Celia & Fontagne, Lionel & Mimouni, Mondher, 2008. "AJAE Appendix: The Impact of Regulations on Agricultural Trade: Evidence from the SPS and TBT Agreements," American Journal of Agricultural Economics APPENDICES, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 90(2), pages 1-7.
    12. John Christopher Beghin & Anne-Célia Disdier & Stéphan Marette, 2017. "Trade restrictiveness indices in the presence of externalities: An application to non-tariff measures," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: John Christopher Beghin (ed.), Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 5, pages 81-104, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    13. Bown, Chad P. & Crowley, Meredith A, 2016. "The Empirical Landscape of Trade Policy," CEPR Discussion Papers 11216, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    14. Murat Genç & David Law, 2014. "A Gravity Model of Barriers to Trade in New Zealand," Treasury Working Paper Series 14/05, New Zealand Treasury.
    15. Gordhan K. Saini, 2009. "Non-tariff measures and Indian textiles and clothing exports," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2009-002, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
    16. Marco Fugazza, 2013. "The Economics Behind Non-Tariff Measures: Theoretical Insights And Empirical Evidence," UNCTAD Blue Series Papers 57, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    17. John Christopher Beghin & Anne-Célia Disdier & Stéphan Marette, 2017. "Trade restrictiveness indices in the presence of externalities: An application to non-tariff measures," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: John Christopher Beghin (ed.), Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 5, pages 81-104, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    18. Eyal RONEN, 2017. "Quantifying the trade effects of NTMs: A review of the empirical literature," Journal of Economics and Political Economy, KSP Journals, vol. 4(3), pages 263-274, September.
    19. Irfan Aleem & Bushra Faizi, 2021. "Non-tariff Measures, Overall Protection and Export Competitiveness: Evidence from Pakistan and Regional Countries," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 60(3), pages 251-282.
    20. Dean Judith M & Signoret José E & Feinberg Robert M. & Ludema Rodney D. & Ferrantino Michael J, 2009. "Estimating the Price Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 9(1), pages 1-41, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Non-tariff barriers; Tariff equivalents; Protection;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:weltar:v:154:y:2018:i:4:d:10.1007_s10290-018-0317-5. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.