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Non-tariff and Overall Protection: Evidence Across Countries and Over time

Author

Listed:
  • Zhaohui Niu
  • Chang Liu
  • Saileshsingh Gunessee
  • Chris Milner

Abstract

This paper analyzes the evolution of the incidence and intensity of non-tariff measures (NTMs). It extends earlier work by measuring protection from NTMs over time from a newly available database and provides evidence on the evolution of NTMs. In particular, building on Kee, Nicita and Olarreaga (2009), this paper estimates the ad valorem equivalents (AVEs) of NTMs for 97 countries at the product level over the period 1997 to 2015. We show that the incidence and the intensity of NTMs were both increasing over this period, with NTMs becoming an even more dominant source of trade protection. We are also able to investigate the evolution of overall protection derived jointly from tariffs and NTMs. The results show that the overall protection level, for most countries and products, has not decreased despite the fall in tariffs associated with multilateral, regional and bilateral trade agreements in recent decades. We also document an increase in overall trade protection during the recent 2008 financial crisis. Overall, this study sheds light on an under-researched aspect of trade liberalization: the proliferation and increase of NTMs.

Suggested Citation

  • Zhaohui Niu & Chang Liu & Saileshsingh Gunessee & Chris Milner, 2018. "Non-tariff and Overall Protection: Evidence Across Countries and Over time," Discussion Papers 2018-05, University of Nottingham, GEP.
  • Handle: RePEc:not:notgep:18/05
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Non-tariff barriers; tariff equivalents; protection;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade

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    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

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