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Measures of trade openness using CGE analysis

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  • Lloyd, P. J.
  • MacLaren, D.

Abstract

While a number of measures of openness have been used in empirical studies, none has a theoretical derivation. Using cge models of an economy, this paper derives a number of measures of opennesss which lie on the unit interval and have a welfare interpretation. One group of measure are transformations of the Uniform Tariff Equivalent which are zero for a closed economy and unity for a completely open economy, and have the property that national welfare increases monotonically with the measures of openess. An alternative measure is calculated as the ratio of the volume of trade in a restricted trade situation to that under the free trade situation. These measures are calculated for 8 regions of the world economy, using the GTAP model. We find close correspondence between all the cge measures but the ranking of countries according to these measures differs substantially from that of the actual trade ratios which are most commonly used in empirical studies.
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Suggested Citation

  • Lloyd, P. J. & MacLaren, D., 2002. "Measures of trade openness using CGE analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 67-81, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jpolmo:v:24:y:2002:i:1:p:67-81
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. James E. Anderson & J. Peter Neary, 1996. "A New Approach to Evaluating Trade Policy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(1), pages 107-125.
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    8. Pritchett, Lant, 1996. "Measuring outward orientation in LDCs: Can it be done?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 307-335, May.
    9. Clinton R. Shiells & Kenneth A. Reinert, 1993. "Armington Models and Terms-of-Trade Effects: Some Econometric Evidence for North America," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 26(2), pages 299-316, May.
    10. Brown, Drusilla K., 1987. "Tariffs, the terms of trade, and national product differentiation," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 503-526.
    11. Lloyd, P. J. & Schweinberger, A. G., 1988. "Trade expenditure functions and the gains from trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(3-4), pages 275-297, May.
    12. Hertel, Thomas, 1997. "Global Trade Analysis: Modeling and applications," GTAP Books, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, number 7685.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Belke Ansgar & Wang Lars, 2006. "The Degree of Openness to Intra-Regional Trade - Towards Value-Added Based Openness Measures," Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik), De Gruyter, pages 115-138.
    2. Maria Cipollina & Luca Salvatici, 2008. "Measuring Protection: Mission Impossible?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, pages 577-616.
    3. Flôres Junior, Renato Galvão, 2008. "Are CGE Models still useful in economic policy making?," FGV/EPGE Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 674, FGV/EPGE - Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil).
    4. Chandran, V.G.R. & Munusamy, 2009. "Trade openness and manufacturing growth in Malaysia," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 637-647, September.
    5. Henningsen, Arne & Henningsen, Géraldine, 2012. "On estimation of the CES production function—Revisited," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 67-69.
    6. Peter Lloyd & Cassey Lee, 2016. "A Review of the Recent Literature on the Institutional Economics Analysis of the Long-Run Performance of Nations," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 2019, The University of Melbourne.
    7. De Lombaerde, Philippe A.A., 2009. "On the dynamic measurement of economic openness," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 731-736, September.
    8. repec:pal:easeco:v:44:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1057_eej.2016.9 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Scott McDonald & Terrie Walmsley, 2004. "Preferential Trade Agreements and the Optimal Liberalisation of Agricultural Trade," Working Papers 2004010, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics, revised Aug 2004.
    10. Lloyd, P. J. & MacLaren, Donald, 2000. "Openness and growth in East Asia after the Asian crisis," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 89-105.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F43 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Economic Growth of Open Economies

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