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The Degree of Openness to Intra-Regional Trade Towards Value-Added Based Openness Measures

  • Ansgar Belke

    ()

    (Universitaet Hohenheim)

  • Lars Wang

This study develops innovative measures of openness towards bilateral trade. The most widely applied openness indices are not able to accurately calculate the degree of trade openness. For example, the intra-regional export ratio which relates the value of exports of an integration area to the gross domestic product, can exceed 100 percent because trade is stated in gross terms, while the gross domestic product is expressed in value-added terms. This implies a negative value of domestic non-tradeables. The actual openness concept corrects the traditional concept by expressing trade in value-added terms instead of gross terms.

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Article provided by Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics in its journal Journal of Economics and Statistics.

Volume (Year): 226 (2006)
Issue (Month): 2 (March)
Pages: 115-138

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Handle: RePEc:jns:jbstat:v:226:y:2006:i:2:p:115-138
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  1. Ann Harrison, 1995. "Openness and Growth: A Time-Series, Cross-Country Analysis for Developing Countries," NBER Working Papers 5221, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Greenaway, David & Foster, Neil, 2002. "North-South Trade, Knowledge Spillovers and Growth," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 17, pages 650-670.
  3. Pritchett, Lant, 1996. "Measuring outward orientation in LDCs: Can it be done?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 307-335, May.
  4. Måns Söderbom & Francis Teal, 2001. "Trade and human capital as determinants of growth," CSAE Working Paper Series 2001-10, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  5. Chen, Been-Lon, 1999. "Trade Openness and Economic Growth: Evidence in East Asia and Latin America," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 14, pages 265-295.
  6. Wacziarg, Romain, 2000. "Measuring the Dynamic Gains from Trade," Research Papers 1654, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
  7. Magnus Blomstrom & Linda S. Goldberg, 2001. "Topics in Empirical International Economics: A Festschrift in Honor of Robert E. Lipsey," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number blom01-1, October.
  8. Falvey, Rod & Gemmell, Norman, 1999. "Factor endowments, nontradables prices and measures of 'openness'," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 101-122, February.
  9. Antonio Spilimbergo & Juan Luis Londoño & Miguel Székely, 1997. "Income Distribution, Factor Endowments, and Trade Openness," Research Department Publications 4088, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
  10. Michael M. Knetter & Matthew J. Slaughter, 2001. "Measuring Product-Market Integration," NBER Chapters, in: Topics in Empirical International Economics: A Festschrift in Honor of Robert E. Lipsey, pages 15-46 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Lloyd, P. J. & MacLaren, D., 2002. "Measures of trade openness using CGE analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 67-81, March.
  12. Jeffrey A. Frankel & David Romer, 1996. "Trade and Growth: An Empirical Investigation," NBER Working Papers 5476, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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