Accounting for intermediates: Production sharing and trade in value added
We combine input–output and bilateral trade data to compute the value added content of bilateral trade. The ratio of value added to gross exports (VAX ratio) is a measure of the intensity of production sharing. Across countries, export composition drives VAX ratios, with exporters of Manufactures having lower ratios. Across sectors, the VAX ratio for Manufactures is low relative to Services, primarily because Services are used as an intermediate to produce manufacturing exports. Across bilateral partners, VAX ratios vary widely and contain information on both bilateral and triangular production chains. We document specifically that bilateral production linkages, not variation in the composition of exports, drive variation in bilateral VAX ratios. Finally, bilateral imbalances measured in value added differ from gross trade imbalances. Most prominently, the U.S.–China imbalance in 2004 is 30–40% smaller when measured in value added.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Arnaud Costinot & Jonathan Vogel & Su Wang, 2011.
"An Elementary Theory of Global Supply Chains,"
NBER Working Papers
16936, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Arnaud Costinot & Jonathan E. Vogel & Su Wang, 2011. "An Elementary Theory of Global Supply Chains," CESifo Working Paper Series 3402, CESifo Group Munich.
- Su Wang & Jonathan Vogel & Arnaud Costinot, 2011. "An Elementary Theory of Global Supply Chains," 2011 Meeting Papers 95, Society for Economic Dynamics.
- Kei-Mu Yi, 2010.
"Can Multistage Production Explain the Home Bias in Trade?,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 100(1), pages 364-93, March.
- Kei-Mu Yi, 2008. "Can multi-stage production explain the home bias in trade?," Working Papers 08-12, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
- Puzzello, Laura, 2012. "A proportionality assumption and measurement biases in the factor content of trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 105-111.
- Ansgar Belke & Lars Wang, 2006.
"The Degree of Openness to Intra-Regional Trade Towards Value-Added Based Openness Measures,"
Journal of Economics and Statistics (Jahrbuecher fuer Nationaloekonomie und Statistik),
Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Statistics and Economics, vol. 226(2), pages 115-138, March.
- Ansgar Belke & Lars Wang, 2005. "The Degree of Openness to Intra-Regional Trade - Towards Value-Added Based Openness Measures," Diskussionspapiere aus dem Institut für Volkswirtschaftslehre der Universität Hohenheim 257/2005, Department of Economics, University of Hohenheim, Germany.
- Kei-Mu Yi, 2003.
"Can Vertical Specialization Explain the Growth of World Trade?,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(1), pages 52-102, February.
- Kei-Mu Yi, 2000. "Can vertical specialization explain the growth of world trade?," Staff Reports 96, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Trefler, Daniel & Zhu, Susan Chun, 2010.
"The structure of factor content predictions,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 195-207, November.
- Kei-Mu Yi & Rudolfs Bems & Robert C. Johnson, 2010.
"Demand Spillovers and the Collapse of Trade in the Global Recession,"
IMF Working Papers
10/142, International Monetary Fund.
- Rudolfs Bems & Robert C Johnson & Kei-Mu Yi, 2010. "Demand Spillovers and the Collapse of Trade in the Global Recession," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 58(2), pages 295-326, December.
- Gordon H. Hanson & Raymond J. Mataloni & Matthew J. Slaughter, 2005.
"Vertical Production Networks in Multinational Firms,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 87(4), pages 664-678, November.
- Gordon H. Hanson & Raymond J. Mataloni & Matthew J. Slaughter, 2003. "Vertical Production Networks in Multinational Firms," NBER Working Papers 9723, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sébastien Miroudot & Alexandros Ragoussis, 2009. "Vertical Trade, Trade Costs and FDI," OECD Trade Policy Papers 89, OECD Publishing.
- Robert Koopman & William Powers & Zhi Wang & Shang-Jin Wei, 2011.
"Give Credit where Credit is Due: Tracing Value Added in Global Production Chains,"
312011, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
- Robert Koopman & William Powers & Zhi Wang & Shang-Jin Wei, 2010. "Give Credit Where Credit Is Due: Tracing Value Added in Global Production Chains," NBER Working Papers 16426, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- David Hummels & Jun Ishii & Kei-Mu Yi, 1999.
"The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade,"
72, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Hummels, David & Ishii, Jun & Yi, Kei-Mu, 2001. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 75-96, June.
- Reimer, Jeffrey J., 2006. "Global production sharing and trade in the services of factors," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 384-408, March.
- Robert Koopman & Zhi Wang & Shang-Jin Wei, 2008. "How Much of Chinese Exports is Really Made In China? Assessing Domestic Value-Added When Processing Trade is Pervasive," NBER Working Papers 14109, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:inecon:v:86:y:2012:i:2:p:224-236. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.