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Using supply chain analysis to examine the costs of non-tariff measures (NTMs) and the benefits of trade facilitation


  • Ferrantino, Michael J.


It has become increasingly common to produce goods in a number of geographically dispersed stages linked by international trade. This tendency, known by names such as production fragmentation, processing trade, and vertical specialization, has important implications for the analysis of nontariff measures (NTMs) and trade facilitation. First, different types of NTMs or trade facilitation issues are naturally associated with different stages in the movement of goods. Different price gaps can be assigned to these stages, making it possible to decompose the overall amount of distortion and to prioritize the policies with the largest potential efficiency gains. Second, NTMs may accumulate in long supply chains, implying that their trade-distorting effects are greater for goods produced in a fragmented manner than for goods with simple production processes. There is evidence that trade costs are more important for high technology goods or goods undergoing several stages of processing. Issues with product standards may be particularly important for goods with long supply chains. The link between NTMs and supply chains also has implications for economic development and for the relationship between liberalization in services and goods.

Suggested Citation

  • Ferrantino, Michael J., 2012. "Using supply chain analysis to examine the costs of non-tariff measures (NTMs) and the benefits of trade facilitation," WTO Staff Working Papers ERSD-2012-02, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:wtowps:ersd201202

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    Cited by:

    1. Diakantoni, Antonia & Escaith, Hubert & Roberts, Michael & Verbeet, Thomas, 2017. "Accumulating trade costs and competitiveness in global value chains," WTO Staff Working Papers ERSD-2017-02, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    2. Diakantoni, Antonia & Escaith, Hubert, 2014. "Trade in tasks, tariff policy and effective protection rates," MPRA Paper 60675, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Beverelli, Cosimo & Neumüller, Simon & Teh, Robert, 2014. "A new look at the extensive trade margin effects of trade facilitation," WTO Staff Working Papers ERSD-2014-16, World Trade Organization (WTO), Economic Research and Statistics Division.
    4. Naz, Farah & Mohsin, Asma & Zaman, Khalid, 2012. "Exchange rate pass-through in to inflation: New insights in to the cointegration relationship from Pakistan," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 2205-2221.
    5. Beverelli, Cosimo & Neumueller, Simon & Teh, Robert, 2015. "Export Diversification Effects of the WTO Trade Facilitation Agreement," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 293-310.

    More about this item


    trade costs; non-tariff measures; standards; intermediate goods;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration
    • F29 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - Other


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