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Los costos de comerciar en Colombia: aproximación basada en una comparación de precios

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Abstract

La cadena del comercio internacional de mercancías incluye los costos de comerciar que involucran los costos de llevar un producto desde la fábrica en el país de origen hasta el consumidor final en el país de destino. Se pueden desagregar entre costos externos hasta el puerto de llegada y costos internos desde el puerto de llegada hasta el consumidor final. La literatura indica que estos costos son altos y destaca entre sus factores de origen a la cadena logística, la infraestructura y la facilitación al comercio que otorga la regulación y procedimientos para exportar e importar. Este estudio presenta los resultados sobre los costos de comerciar en el país para el período 1999-2012. Específicamente, se cuantifican los costos de importar una mercancía entre el país de origen y la bodega del importador, comparando el precio de esta en el país de origen (precio fob) con su precio en bodega en Colombia (precio del productor). Para realizar estos cálculos se utilizaron los microdatos reportados en la encuesta del índice de precios del productor y en los registros aduaneros de importaciones. Esta información permite desagregar estos costos en tres componentes: costos externos por transporte, derechos aduaneros pagados, y costos internos no arancelarios que incluyen, entre otros, el manejo de la mercancía en puerto, los gastos por trámites previos, procesos de inspección y nacionalización en aduanas, y costos de transporte interno. Los resultados revelan que los costos de importar cayeron a partir de 2007 y que su valor promedio para una muestra de productos agrícolas y manufacturados fue de 36 por ciento en 2012. También se presenta un estudio de caso de la importación de vino de un importador pequeño, el cual permite descomponer los costos de comerciar entre todos los eslabones de la cadena logística, desde el viñedo en el país de origen hasta el consumidor final en Bogotá.

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  • Jorge García García & David Camilo López & Enrique Montes Uribe, 2016. "Los costos de comerciar en Colombia: aproximación basada en una comparación de precios," Borradores de Economia 974, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:974
    DOI: 10.32468/be.974
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    Cited by:

    1. Jorge García-García & Enrique Montes-Uribe & Iader Giraldo-Salazar (ed.), 2019. "Comercio exterior en Colombia: política, instituciones, costos y resultados," Books, Banco de la Republica de Colombia, number 2019-isbn:9789586644068.
    2. David C. López-Valenzuela & Enrique Montes-Uribe & Héctor M. Zárate-Solano & Alvaro Carmona-Duarte, 2019. "Determinantes y evolución entre precios y cantidades de las exportaciones industriales de Colombia: un estudio a partir de un modelo de Panel-VAR," Borradores de Economia 1075, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    3. International Monetary Fund, 2018. "Colombia: Selected Issues," IMF Staff Country Reports 2018/129, International Monetary Fund.
    4. Jorge García García & María Mercedes Collazos & David Camilo López & Enrique Montes Uribe, 2017. "Los Costos de Comerciar en Colombia – Resultados de la Encuesta de Comercio Exterior del Banco de la República," Borradores de Economia 1015, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Costos de comerciar; comparaciones de precios; precio de importaciones; tarifas; barreras no tarifarias; protección;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C81 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Data Collection and Data Estimation Methodology; Computer Programs - - - Methodology for Collecting, Estimating, and Organizing Microeconomic Data; Data Access
    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade

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