Openness and growth: A time-series, cross-country analysis for developing countries
This paper draws together a variety of openness measures to test the association between openness and growth. Although the correlation across different types of openness is not always strong, there is generally a positive association between growth and different measures of openness. The strength of the association depends on whether the specification uses cross-section or panel data (which combines cross- section and time series). For industrializing countries, which have exhibited significant fluctuations in trade regimes over time, long run averages may not serve as very meaningful indicators of policy.
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